Temporary Partial Closure
Due to increased security measures, portions of Catoctin Mountain Park will be closed effective Saturday, August 2, 2014 at approximately 10:00 AM. Closures are scheduled to continue through Sunday, August 3, 2014 at approximately 4:00 PM. More »
Charcoal and Iron Industry
The trees that posed a major obstacle to the settler were of extreme value to the burgeoning industrial revolution. The production of charcoal was a major enterprise employing over 300 woodcutters and consuming timber from 11,000 acres of company land during peak years (1859-1885). Charcoal fueled the Catoctin Iron Furnace which separated out the iron from the raw iron ore. Approximately 80 bushels of charcoal were burned for every ton of iron manufactured. It took a cord of wood to manufacture 6 bushels of charcoal.
The woodcutters entered a forested area and cut every live standing tree. One or two trees were left to re-seed the forest. The resulting logs were carried downhill by horse or mule drawn sleds to the hearth where the wood was charred.
The collier supervised the orderly stacking of the wood. First a chimney was built in the center of the hearth; then 30 to 50 cords of four foot logs were stacked around this chimney in concentric circles. The finished stack was covered with leaves and dirt. This controlled the amount of air that reached the fire. Hot embers were dropped into the chimney on a cool, humid night. Tending the fire was a round-the-clock job so the collier lived nearby in a simple hut. He watched up to seven hearths that smoldered for two weeks until charring was complete.
The charcoal was raked into small piles so that it could cool. This way any fires that would flare up would destroy only a portion of the finished product instead of the entire stack. The collier was responsible for the charcoal unit until it was delivered to the furnace. Since he was paid by the bushel, any charcoal that accidentally burned was his personal loss.
Did You Know?
The first Job Corps Center in President Johnson’s “War on Poverty,” operated from 1965-1969. Goals were to combine work, education, and recreation “to create a desire to become happy, useful, and self-supporting citizens,” to “create a good work attitude,” and to improve reading and math skills.