• Cannon firing on the gundeck of the Castillo de San Marcos

    Castillo De San Marcos

    National Monument Florida

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    Afternoon Thunderstorms can create dangerous amounts of lightning strikes. If Lightning is visible from the Castillo, Gundeck closures will take place. Click this link for the local weather forcast. More »

Arms & Armament


Its actual origins are obscure, but the earliest records of it date from 9th century China. These records tell of Chinese alchemists searching for an elixir of life who first stumbled across what we know today as sodium and potassium nitrate.

Nitrates react rapidly and violently when burned and are the key ingredient in what would come to be known as gunpowder. The Chinese didn't quite know what to make of this new and volatile substance. One early account reported this experiment: "some have heated together the saltpeter, sulfur and carbon of charcoal with honey; smoke and flames result, so that their hands and faces have been burnt, and even the whole house burnt down." For over a hundred years this early form of gunpowder remained primarily a source of amusement used in the creation of early fireworks and magicians tricks.

Regardless of its humble origins, gunpowder was the first explosive chemical propellant recorded in history.



Though the Chinese eventually started using gunpowder weapons in the 10th century, it is the Turks who generally get the credit of formulating gunpowder into a high enough quality to be used effectively in combat. Cannon appeared in Europe about the beginning of the 12th century. Early cannon or "gonnes" (hence the name gonne or gunne powder) tended to be gigantic, unwieldy monsters rather as dangerous to the user as to the intended enemy, but they were impressively frightening, thus ensuring their place on the field of war.

As chemistry and metal casting technology improved during the Middle Ages, better and stronger cannon with more effective charges and projectiles came into being, eventually creating what we know today as artillery. This in turn changed the architecture of defensive fortifications.

Various parts of the flintlock mechanism; 1752 Spanish Fusile

Small Arms

It was in the 17th and 18th century with the global expansion of European colonization and commerce that gunpowder came into its own in the form of small arms, i.e., portable gunpowder weapons small enough to be used by the individual soldier, most notably the smoothbore musket. Their introduction at such a critical period of history literally changes the world.

Did You Know?

Spanish gold doubloons still spark treasure hunters to take on bold adventures.

Spanish fleets brought the wealth of the New World to Spain in the form of gold, gems, spices, and exotic goods. In the 300 years of the colonial era it is estimated that they carried between 600-800 billion dollars worth of treasure. Castillo de San Marcos National Monument, Florida