World War I and the Jazz Age (1914-1928)
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1914 Marcus Garvey founds the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in Jamaica.
1915 South Carolina passes a law to segregate entrances and working facilities in factories.
1915 D.W. Griffiths' film, Birth of a Nation, celebrates the activities of the Ku Klux Klan and portrays African Americans in a demeaning way.
1915 Guinn v. United States. U.S. Supreme Court rules against Oklahoma's "grandfather clause" voting restriction on African Americans.
1916 The NAACP establishes an anti-lynching committee.
1917 The United States enters World War I. 365,000 African Americans are drafted - 200,000 serve in Europe.
1919 "Red Summer." Race violence occurrs across the country, as African American servicemen return from World War I.
1921 Race riot in Tulsa, Oklahoma results in over $1 million worth of property damage and the deaths of at least 30 people.
1922 Ozawa v. United States. U.S. Supreme Court rules that Japanese are ineligible for U.S. citizenship.
1923 Rosewood, Florida, a mainly African American community, is completely destroyed by a white mob which murders many residents.
1924 Congress grants citizenship to all American Indians.
1926 Corrigan v. Buckley. U.S. Supreme Court upholds the legality of racially restrictive covenants between homeowners.
Did You Know?
The national strategy to use the courts to challenge segregation in public education began with the NAACP under the leadership of attorney Charles Hamilton Houston in the 1930’s.--Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site More...