U.S. Highway 89 Bryce Canyon to Grand Canyon
Road damage south of Page, Arizona will impact travel between Bryce Canyon and Grand Canyon National Parks. Click for a travel advisory and link to a map with suggested alternate routes: More »
Sunset Campground Construction
From April-July 2014, three new restroom facilities will be constructed in Sunset Campground. Visitors may experience construction noise and dust, as well as some campsite and restroom closures. 'Sunset Campground' webpage has additional information. More »
Bryce Point to Peekaboo Connector Trail Closure
Due to a large rockslide, the connecting trail from Bryce Point to Peekaboo Loop is closed. Trail will be reopened once repairs are made. The Peekaboo Loop is open, but must be accessed from Sunset or Sunrise Point.
Wall Street Section of Navajo Loop Closed
Due to dangerous conditions (falling rock and treacherous, icy switchbacks), the Wall Street section of the Navajo Loop Trail is CLOSED. It will reopen in Spring once freezing temperatures have subsided.
Backcountry Campsite Closures
Due to bear activity at select campsites in Bryce Canyon's backcountry, two backcountry campsites have been closed until further notice: Sheep Creek and Iron Spring.
Activity 3: Permineralization
LET'S MAKE A FOSSIL #1
Fossils are remnants of once living things. One way fossils form is by permineralization. This is when the pore spaces of a bone are filled with mineral rich water and internal crystals begin to form. Eventually the whole bone becomes rock. The activity uses a sponge dipped in wax to imitate permineralization.
Instructional Method: Activity
Goal: To teach students how permineralized fossils form.
Objectives: Students will be able to:
Setup: 15 min.
Paraffin wax, 1 block (2" x 2" x 6") per 10 students 1 Nonabrasive household sponge per student (the bigger, the better) Heat source and a pot/pan for boiling paraffin wax Rubber gloves and safety goggles Tongs Permanent Markers and Scissors Various colors of food coloring (optional) * Stencils of different fossil shapes download file Wax paper
Permineralized fossils, such as petrified wood, are often some of the most beautiful fossils. They are often filled with multicolored crystals. The various colors can be traced to specific types of mineral impurities (reds = iron, greens = copper, yellows = sulfur, etc.).
Most found dinosaur bones are permineralized. Permineralized fossils are created when spaces in an organism that usually hold liquids or gasses are filled with mineral rich water. This happens both in an entire organ like a lung and inside individual cells. As mineral rich water concentrations increase, those minerals precipitate out, filling the voids and surrounding the cell walls and cell membranes. Examples of minerals that commonly dissolve and saturate in solution include silica (SiO2), calcium carbonate(CaCO3), and iron ores like pyrite (FeS2).
Eventually, all carbon-based tissues will rot, completely decomposing. But through a complicated chemical process called replacement, even things like cell walls and cell membranes can be preserved by trading their carbon molecules for rock forming minerals. When this happens, a large amount of biological detail is preserved, especially when the replacing minerals differ from minerals that caused the permineralization. For example, when silica-rich water is the permineralizing agent and iron pyrite replaces the tissues, paleontologists can see internal cellular structure. They can even distinguish between different cell organelles! This is only possible when the fluid space within individual cells is also permineralized. This high quality form of permineralization is called petrifaction and commonly occurs in petrified wood. So to be petrified, objects end up containing none of their original chemistry.
Although permineralized fossils are usually the most durable fossil type, they are not impervious. Extreme heat and/or pressure created by igneous or metamorphic processes can dissolve and melt them. Rainwater, being slightly acidic, will dissolve fossils permineralized with calcium carbonate. Furthermore, the same mechanical weathering that exposes them from their surrounding rock will also eventually destroy them.
Permineralized fossils are highly sought after by both rock hounds and paleontologists. While paleontologists value these kinds of fossils because of the detailed biology they record, collectors like them for their beauty and durability.
In this activity the sponge represents animal bone and the paraffin wax is the permineralizing agent.
Ask students to explain how permineralized fossils form using either the sponge example or one from real life. Encourage the students to speculate as to what will happen to their sponge if it gets hot again or exposed to water. Help them draw analogies as to what natural processes can destroy real permineralized fossils.
Add different colors of food coloring to multiple pots of boiling wax to simulate different kinds of mineral impurities. As directed by the students, dip different portions of the sponge fossil in different colors of wax. Alternatively, experiment with squeezing the sponge in one color and then just quickly dipping in another, in an attempt to simulate different internal permineralization.
Have the students cut out their fossils so that the leftover portion of the sponge is one intact piece. Use the internal portion of the sponge and the external border to illustrate the concept of molds and casts. Tour a museum or natural setting where various kinds and colors of permineralized fossils can be observed. Initiate and guide a discussion about the conflict created between souvenir hunters / rock hounds and paleontologists. Explain how permineralized fossils are exceeding in value to both groups of people yet for entirely different reasons. Invite the students to come up with ideas and policies that might satisfy both kinds of people's needs.
Included National Parks and other sites:
Agate Fossil Beds National Monument
Utah Science Core:
4th Grade Standard 4 Objective 1,2
Did You Know?
Bryce Canyon National Park has three wildlife species listed under the Endangered Species Act: Utah Prairie Dog, California condor, and the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher. It is illegal to take, capture, kill, pursue, hunt, or harm these species or their habitat. More...