• Lush vegetation on the top of Spectacle Island's North drumlin dominates the foreground. Boston's skyline can be seen in the distance.  The park's logo with tag line minutes away, worlds apart empashises the stark contrast between the city and islands.

    Boston Harbor Islands

    National Recreation Area Massachusetts

REFERENCES: Lighthouses / Natural Resources

The following references were utilized by Nancy S. Seasholes in preparing text for the Web pages associated with Boston Harbor Islands lighthouses and other navigational aids, as well as historical use of natural resources.

Arato, Christine, Margaret Coffin, Tracy Stakely and Patrick Eleey
2000 Draft Cultural Landscape Report for the Boston Harbor Islands. Volume II: Existing Conditions. U. S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation, Boston.

Boston Affiliates, Inc.
2003 Research Plan and Historic Context Statement, Boston Harbor Islands National Park Area. Prepared for the Island Alliance, Boston.

Boston City Document
1853 Report of the Joint Standing Committee on Boston Harbor for the Year 1852, No. 60. City Printers, Boston.

1860 Preliminary Report of the Commission on Boston Harbor, No. 37. City Printers, Boston.

Boston Record Commissioners (B.R.C.)
1881aSecond Report of the Record Commissioners of the City of Boston Containing the Boston Records,1634–1660 and the Book of Possessions, vol. 2. City Printers, Boston.

1881bA Report of the Record Commissioners of the City of Boston Containing the Boston Records from 1660 to 1701, vol. 7. City Printers, Boston.

Claesson, Stefan and Elizabeth Carella
2002 Rainsford Island Archaeological Reconnaissance and Management Plan. Institute of Maritime History, Biddeford, ME.

Conkling, Philip W.
1999 Islands in Time: A Natural and Cultural History of the Islands of the Gulf of Maine. rev. ed. Island Institute, Rockland, ME and Down East Books, Camden, ME.

Cook, Lauren
1993 Report on An Historical Archaeological Resource Survey of Thompson’s Island. Unpublished report prepared for the Thompson Island Archaeological Advisory Committee. Boston University Center for Archaeological Studies, Boston.

D’Entremont, Jeremy
2007a Beavertail Light. New England Lighthouses: A Virtual Guide. http://lighthouse.cc/beavertail/history.html

2007b Boston Light. New England Lighthouses: A Virtual Guide. http://lighthouse.cc/boston/history.html

2007c Brant Point Light. New England Lighthouses: A Virtual Guide. http://lighthouse.cc/brant/history.html

2007d Broad Sound Channel Inner Range Lights. New England Lighthouses: A Virtual Guide. http://lighthouse.cc/broadsoundchannel/history.html

2007e Deer Island Light. New England Lighthouses: A Virtual Guide. http://lighthouse.cc/graves/history.html

2007f Graves Light. New England Lighthouses: A Virtual Guide. http://lighthouse.cc/newlondon/history.html

2007g Great Point Light. New England Lighthouses: A Virtual Guide. http://lighthouse.cc/greatpoint/history.html

2007h Long Island Head Light. New England Lighthouses: A Virtual Guide. http://lighthouse.cc/longislandhead/history.html

2007i Lovell’s Island Range Lights. New England Lighthouses: A Virtual Guide. http://lighthouse.cc/lovells/history.html

2007j Minots Ledge Light. New England Lighthouses: A Virtual Guide. http://lighthouse.cc/minots/history.html

2007k New London Harbor Light. New England Lighthouses: A Virtual Guide. http://lighthouse.cc/newlondon/history.html

2007l Narrows Light (Bug Light). New England Lighthouses: A Virtual Guide. http://lighthouse.cc/narrows/history.html

2007m Plum Island Light. New England Lighthouses: A Virtual Guide. http://lighthouse.cc/plumisland/history.html

2007n Plymouth Light. New England Lighthouses: A Virtual Guide. http://lighthouse.cc/plymouth/history.html

2007o Portsmouth Harbor Light. New England Lighthouses: A Virtual Guide. http://lighthouse.cc/portsmouth/history.html

2007p Spectacle Island Range Lights. New England Lighthouses: A Virtual Guide. http://lighthouse.cc/spectacle/history.html

2007q Thacher Island Twin Lights. New England Lighthouses: A Virtual Guide. http://lighthouse.cc/thacher/history.html

Department of Conservation and Recreation. Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
2005 Lovells Island, Boston Harbor Islands: Self-Guided Tour. Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Boston.

Flint, Willard
n.d. A History of U. S. Lightships. http://www.uscg.mil/History/articles/Lightships.pdf

Gleason, Sarah C.
1991 Kindly Lights: A History of the Lighthouses of Southern New England. Beacon Press, Boston.

Jones, Donald G.
1989 Intensive Archaeological Survey of Spectacle Island in Boston Harbor. Office of Public Archaeology Report of Investigations No. 80, Boston University.

Klein, Christopher
2008 Discovering the Boston Harbor Islands: A Guide to the City’s Hidden Shores. Union Park Press, Boston.

Lighthouse Friends
2001aMinots Ledge, MA. http://www.lighthousefriends.com/light.asp?ID=474

2001bMorris Island, SC. http://www.lighthousefriends.com/light.asp?ID=333

2001cSandy Hook, NJ. http://www.lighthousefriends.com/light.asp?ID=378

Luedtke, Barbara
1975 Final Report of the Archaeological and Paleobotanical Resources on Twelve Islands in Boston Harbor. Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Boston.

1990 Report on an Archaeological Survey at World’s End. Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Boston.

McLane, Charles B.
1989 Islands of the Mid-Maine Coast: Mount Desert to Machias Bay. Vol. 2. Kennebec River Press, Falmouth, ME.

1994 Islands of the Mid-Maine Coast: Pemaquid Point to the Kennebec River. Vol. 4. The Island Institute, Rockland, ME and Tilbury House, Publishers, Gardiner, ME.

McLane, Charles B. and Carol Evarts McLane
1997 Islands of the Mid-Maine Coast: Penobscot Bay. Vol. 1, rev. ed. Tilbury House, Publishers, Gardiner, ME and The Island Institute, Rockland, ME.

National Park Service (NPS)
2001 Lighthouses: An Administrative History. http://www.nps.gov/history/maritime/light/admin.htm

n.d. Nix’s Mate Daybeacon. Maritime History of Massachusetts: A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary. http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/maritime/nix.htm

New York Times
1915 Hits Boston Lightship. September 29.

1935 Lightship Rammed; British Ship Seized. December 21.

Noble, Dennis L.
1997 Lighthouses & Keepers: The U. S. Lighthouse Service and Its Legacy. Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD.

Patterson, William A. III and Julie A. Richburg
2003 Historical Vegetation of the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. Paper presented at Environmental History Seminar, Massachusetts Historical Society, February 19.

Pemberton, Thomas
1794 A Topographical and Historical Description of Boston, 1794. Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society 3:241–304.

Quincy, Josiah
1852 Municipal History of the Town and City of Boston. Charles C. Little and James Brown, Boston.

Richburg, Julie A. and William A. Patterson III
2005 Historical Description of the Vegetation of the Boston Harbor Islands: 1600–2000. Northeastern Naturalist 12(Special Issue):13–30.

Rowlett, Russ
2008 Nix’s Mate Daybeacon. Lighthouses of Northern Massachusetts. http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/lighthouse/photos/NewEngland/nixsmate.htm

Rudyalicelighthouse.net
2006 Cape Henlopen Light. http://www.rudyalicelighthouse.net/MdAtLts/CpHn/CpHn.htm

Seasholes, Nancy S. and Timothy L. Binzen
2008 Archeological Overview and Assessment of the Boston Harbor Islands National Park Area: Volume 1. Archaeological Services at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

Shurtleff, Nathaniel B.
1890 A Topographical and Historical Description of Boston. 3rd ed. Rockwell and Churchill, Boston.

Snow, Edward Rowe
1971 The Islands of Boston Harbor. Dodd, Mead and Company, New York.

Snowman, Sally R. and James G. Thomson
1999 Boston Light: A Historical Perspective. Flagship Press, n.p.

Stanley, Raymond W.
1966 The Four Thompsons of Boston Harbor: 1621–1965. Privately printed, Boston.

Stark, James H.
1879 Illustrated History of Boston Harbor. Photo Electrotype Co., Boston.

Sumner, William Hyslop
1858 A History of East Boston. J. E. Tilton, Boston.

Sweetser, M. F.
1988 King’s Handbook of Boston Harbor. 1988 reprint, Applewood Books, Boston. [1888]

U. S. Coast Guard
2008 U. S. Lightship Station Assignments. http://www.uscg.mil/History/weblightships/Lightship_Station_Index.asp

Walker, William H. C. and Willard Brewer Walker
1984 A History of World’s End. 2nd ed. The Trustees of Reservations, Milton, MA.

Witney, Dudley
1975 The Lighthouse. New York Graphic Society, Boston.

Wood, William
1977 New England’s Prospect. Edited by Alden T. Vaughan. University of Massachusetts Press, [1634] Amherst.

Did You Know?