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Robert Gould Shaw and the 54th Regiment
Boston African American NHS/ NPS
The Robert Gould Shaw and Massachusetts 54th Regiment Memorial, located across Beacon Street from the State House, serves as a reminder of the heavy cost paid by individuals and families during the Civil War. In particular, it serves as a memorial to the group of men who were among the first African Americans to fight in that war. Although African Americans served in both the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, northern racist sentiments kept African Americans from taking up arms for the United States in the early years of the Civil War. However, a clause in Abraham Lincoln’s 1863 Emancipation Proclamation made possible the organization of African American volunteer regiments. The first documented African American regiment formed in the north was the Massachusetts 54th Volunteer Infantry, instituted under Governor John Andrew in 1863. African American men came to enlist from every region of the north, and from as far away as the Caribbean. Robert Gould Shaw was the man Andrew chose to lead this regiment.
Augustus Saint-Gaudens took nearly fourteen years to complete this high-relief bronze monument, which celebrates the valor and sacrifices of the Massachusetts 54th. Saint-Gaudens was one of the premier artists of his day. He grew up in New York and Boston, but received formal training at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts Paris. In New York, forty men were hired to serve as models for the soldiers’ faces. Colonel Shaw is shown on horseback and three rows of infantry men march behind. This scene depicts the 54th Regiment marching down Beacon Street on May 28, 1863 as they left Boston to head south. The monument was paid for by private donations and was unveiled in a ceremony on May 31, 1897.
Blatt, Martin ed. Hope and Glory: Essays on the Legacy of the54th Amherst, Universityof Massachusetts, 2001.
Dryfhout, John H. The Works of Augustus Saint-Gaudens Hanover, University Press of New England, 1982.
“Historic Resource Study Boston African American National Historic Site” by Kathryn Grover and Janine V. daSilva.
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Did You Know?
In 1783, Massachusetts became the first state in the country to officially abolish slavery, after two slaves, Elizabeth “Mumbet” Freeman and Qwok Walker, successfully sued in separate cases for their freedom.