• Long House in autumn

    Bandelier

    National Monument New Mexico

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  • Access by Shuttle Bus Only

    Through October 27, 2014 all access to the most visited part of the park, Frijoles Canyon, will be via a mandatory shuttle bus from the nearby community of White Rock from 9 AM - 3 PM daily. Private cars may drive in before 9 AM or after 3 PM. More »

Falls Trail Stop 1

Falls Trail Stop 1

Volcanic Tuff

NPS Photo by Stella Carroll

Volcanic Tuff

The pinkish colored rocks on the slopes and in the cliffs above you are volcanic tuff. About 1.6 and again 1.2 million years ago, there was a tremendous series of volcanic eruptions (600 times larger than the blast from Mount St. Helens in 1980) from the Jemez (HAY-mez) Mountains just northwest of here. Ash from the explosions was deposited across the nearby landscape in thick layers creating the Pajarito (Pah-ha-REE-toe) Plateau. Some ash was carried on the prevailing winds forming thin deposits as far away as Iowa. Looking closely at the tuff, a sandy texture is apparent. Volcanic tuff here is porous and relatively soft. Running water erodes it quickly, cutting deep, steep-walled canyons like this one.

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Did You Know?

Lesser Goldfinch mom feeds fledgling

Baby birds often leave the nest before they can really fly. That's because the nest is the most dangerous place for the young bird to stay.