Late Woodland Period (1,500 - 1,100 Before the Present)
The Late Woodland period in Ohio was marked by the end of the elaborate artistic expression and long distance trade networks characteristic of Hopewell Culture. Late Woodland peoples no longer built earthworks, but occasionally buried their dead in existing mounds, suggesting a sense of kinship with the earlier groups.
Late Woodlands peoples became more reliant on cultivated crops such as maygrass, goosefoot, knotweed, sunflowers, and eventually maize. Large pottery jars reflected the need for secure storage of plant foods. This period also saw the introduction of the bow and arrow for hunting.
During this time the regional population increased rapidly as well as the size and permanence of settlements. Settlements became more dispersed and were located in a wider range of topographic areas than communities in the Middle Woodland period. Some archeological evidence suggests that regional conflict may have increased. Villages were often surrounded by ditches or stockade walls.