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Technical Brief 21 Peer Review of Federal Archeological Projects and Programs

Published by the DOI Departmental Consulting Archeologist/NPS Archeology Program, National Park Service, Washington, DC, March 2007.

This Technical Brief describes objectives, organization, and methods that have been used to conduct peer reviews in public archeology projects and programs. In describing this process, we draw upon recent peer reviews managed by several of the authors of this publication, as well as experiences from earlier reviews described in Keel (1993). Thus, this Technical Brief updates guidance and suggested procedures for government agencies and other archeological resources management organizations regarding the use of the peer review process as a means of improving the effectiveness of their projects and programs.

Introduction

The review of research by peers is a hallmark of scholarship. Peer reviews are the conscience of science and scholarship; they provide a necessary check on practitioners and an explicit evaluation of their efforts. Although most often thought of in relation to grant reviews and publication, peer review is also valuable in enhancing the quality of the full range of activities in archeological projects and programs.

The focus of the peer reviews described in this technical brief may vary. In some instances, agencies have requested the review of specific archeological projects. These investigations have ranged from survey projects to identify sites (see for example, the Scope of Work for the Fort Campbell peer review in Appendix B) to projects that involve data recovery or excavation activities as well as identification and evaluation investigations (see for example, the Scope of Work for the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway peer review in Appendix C). In other instances, agencies have requested peer review of a more general scope, looking at archeological programs that include several projects or other components. The 1995 peer review of the Bureau of Reclamation Phoenix Area Office cultural resource program is an example of this programmatic focus for a peer review (see Appendix A, the letter requesting this program peer review).

This Technical Brief provides guidance to governmental agencies and other programs on the peer review process. Such peer reviews may be full-scale versions, similar to ones completed by the Departmental Consulting Archeologist (DCA), or they may be smaller, to fit the needs of more localized projects. In either case, the results can lead to cost savings through efficiency, increased effectiveness, and increased support for archeology among members of the public and within agencies. The government agencies and the professionals who participate in these reviews recognize that peer reviews can provide an important contribution to project design and management.

This Technical Brief describes the peer review process within the Federal archeological arena. It also supplies information about the planning, design, and implementation of peer reviews.

Purpose and Goals

In many academic research projects the principal investigator(s) develops a research design, identifies and obtains permission to investigate the resources that fit the project's goals, and raises the necessary funds by obtaining a grant. The researcher plans and conducts the work and publishes the results. Review of the scientific merits of the proposed work by the researcher's peers occurs during the grant application process, in the review of the results by the granting organization, as part of the publication process, and in the reception of the product by the scientific community.

Archeology conducted to comply with Federal historic and archeological preservation laws must follow sound archeological practice and also the regulations, procedures, and guidelines mandated by and developed from those laws. Under these laws archeology is conducted to benefit the American people generally through the preservation of important archeological resources and information.

The first objective of research in public archeology is to identify, evaluate, record and document significant archeological resources. Research may also involve treatment, including excavation for data recovery. The resulting information is used for a variety of practical purposes, including education and fostering an appreciation of the nation's heritage among its citizens. The concomitant benefits that individual archeologists may derive from these endeavors with regard to professional standing and career advancement are secondary.

The principal difference between an exclusively academic research design and one developed for a public project is that the former develops from scientific curiosity while in the latter research needs are conditioned by management requirements for compliance with law, regulation, and policy. Therefore, there are constraints on federal archeology projects that may not apply to academic projects.

However, federal projects involve the same general steps of any research project and have theoretical, methodological and/or substantive goals. The development of the archeological project within Federal historic preservation is a consultative process in the hands of Federal archeologists and their counterparts in the State or Tribal Historic Preservation Office (SHPO or THPO, respectively). Project plans and archeological results also may be reviewed by archeologists and historic preservation professionals of the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP). Frequently suggestions made during these consultations result in design improvements. As a result of this coordination, the project has a firm, defensible foundation.

Federal archeological project research design is open to evaluation and criticism. Evaluations occur as part of memoranda of agreement, National Register of Historic Places nominations or determinations of eligibility, determinations of effect, reviews of scopes of work for data recovery plans, and requests for proposals that form the bases for contracts. Depending on the specifics of the project, these evaluations are performed by archeologists, other cultural resources specialists, and perhaps officials of various agencies. These reviews represent a broad range of scientific and legal compliance concerns.

Because such evaluations improve the agency proposal, stipulations for formal peer reviews are often specifically included in memoranda of agreement or agency contracts. In the case of data recovery projects designed to mitigate the loss of important information, such evaluation is done by the agency before a project is announced for bidding. As part of the proposal, the winning bidder also prepares a research design or work plan which provides refinements for conducting the research. It also defines the protocols that will serve as project guides.

(photo) Archeologists at site of Hohokom pithouse.

Figure 1. Archeologists explaining excavation of a Hohokam pioneer period pithouse, CAP peer review, 1986. (Photo courtesy Bureau of Reclamation/Tom Lincoln)

Before the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), rescue or salvage archeology was handled without input from States, Tribes, or the ACHP. Archeological rescue work was usually controlled by the time and money available rather than by the development of thoughtful and explicit research designs. Today Federal agency archeologists or contractors from the public and private sectors conduct Federal archeological projects. Competition among archeological contractors is the norm unless the work is done by agency personnel. It does not matter who does the project for the peer review process described here to work.

The primary goal of the peer review process is to evaluate the conduct of Federal archeological projects and assess the competence and efficiency of projects relative to archeological practice and legal compliance. An academic peer review rates a project on its scientific merits. Academic reviewers evaluate the theoretical basis, methodologies for data collection and analysis, and how these contribute to the research goals.

In Federal archeology, the peer review examines additional topics as well as these. Is the agency following the stipulations of the compliance documents agreed to under the Section 106 process of NHPA and other regulatory requirements? Are Secretary of Interior Standards being met? Is there an appropriate plan for curation? Have data fulfilled the needs of the research design? Have unexpected data or research domains come to light that need additional investigation? Does the project need to be changed or redesigned to take these findings into consideration?

Federal archeology project peer reviews have been undertaken for a variety of reasons. In some cases, reviews were undertaken when controversy stirred about an undertaking or the archeology associated with it. Some reviews have been conducted because of major disagreement between the agency and the contractor about the work. Allegations or questions may have come from the archeological profession, Indian tribes, the media, special interest groups, or members of Congress. Although the peer review may address conflicts or disagreements, it is not a forum for mediation or adjudication. Agencies have requested reviews by the DCA to investigate whether projects were adequate. Review may be conducted when an agency wishes to improve a project.

Appendix A provides an example of a request from an agency for an archeological peer review. This memorandum is the request from the Area Manager, Phoenix Area Office, Bureau of Reclamation for a peer review of the area office cultural resource program.

In addition to improving specific projects or resolving disagreements, the use of the peer review process in public archeology also serves other purposes:

  1. Demonstrating to the professional community, Congress, the Administration, and others that the Federal archeology program produces excellent results;
  2. Creating networks for communication among government and academic archeologists that improve archeology;
  3. Helping resolve disputes among Federal agencies, contractors, Indian tribes, special interest groups, and the media;
  4. Providing Federal archeologists with professional credibility among their managers and the academic community.

Peer Review Topics

The peer review manager in consultation with the agency representative—usually the agency archeologist—establishes a project review agenda and develops a list of suggested review topics to aid the peer review team in their examination. The peer review evaluates the project according to selected criteria, which will vary according to the circumstances. Often the following questions will help frame the peer review.

  1. Is the archeological research consistent with the contract, memorandum of agreement, and other covering directives?
  2. Is the project within time and budget constraints?
  3. Are the agency and the contractor fulfilling the requirements of the contract?
  4. Are there unresolved disputes or disagreements between the contractor and the agency related to the archeological work?
  5. Are the research and the materials and data recovered consistent with the needs of the research design?
  6. Are there gaps in the data? If so, is it possible to fill them?
  7. Based upon new findings, should other lines of research be pursued in place of or in addition to those identified in the research design? Is it desirable to suspend a particular line of research?
  8. Are the public education and outreach aspects of the project adequate and effective?
  9. Are the requirements for consultation with affected parties being met adequately and effectively?
  10. Are Federal standards for the cleaning, cataloging, description, analysis, and curation of the material and data recovered being met?
  11. Are there adequate and sustainable methods for data management?

This approach accepts previous decisions made by the various consulting parties about the treatment of archeological resources. It also provides an occasion to assess the project to determine if any changes are desirable. This approach steers clear of second-guessing earlier decisions or trying to identify all of the approaches for conducting archeological investigations.

The DCA conducts a limited number of peer reviews. Table 1 lists the peer reviews that the DCA has conducted and summarizes the reasons for them.

Table 1. Peer Review Projects Done by the Departmental Consulting Archeologist, National Park Service, as of 2006

Project/Location/reason for review Year Agency
Dolores Project, McPhee Reservoir, CO
Problems between the contractor and the agency about the scope of the investigation and project management
1981 Bureau of Reclamation
Central Arizona Project, AZ
Agency wanted to confirm that the scope and focus of the archeological project were appropriate.
1986 Bureau of Reclamation
Jackson Lake Dam, Grand Teton National Park, WY
Demonstrate to the members of the Wyoming Congressional delegation that the project-related archeological investigations were adequate and satisfied State interests
1987 National Park Service
Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Carson Desert, NV
Address Native American concerns and evaluate whether historic preservation requirements were being met
1988 Fish and Wildlife Service
Libby Dam Project, Lake Koocanusa, MT
Confirm that the agency's historic preservation responsibilities were being fulfilled in a manner sensitive to Native American religious concerns
1989 Corps of Engineers
Alkali Creek Project, ND
Provide an independent assessment of the quality, adequacy, and importance of archeological investigations of a flood control system
1990 Soil Conservation Service
Central and Northern Plains Archeological Overview, conducted by the Arkansas Archeological Survey. Provide an objective review of the results of this pilot study that synthesized archeological information from the middle third of the United States 1992 Department of Defense Legacy Program
Phoenix Area Office, AZ
Provide an objective review of the results of archeological projects conducted through this Bureau of Reclamation program in anticipation of additional work being conducted
1995 Bureau of Reclamation
Fort Campbell, KY and TN
Examine dispute between the Fort, contractor and sub-contractor and make recommendations regarding use of contracting for archeological resource management investigations
2004 Department of Army
Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway Archeological Peer Review, Missouri
Provide an objective evaluation of archeological investigations and decisions made regarding significance of sites and how to use data recovery for impact mitigation
2006 Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army

Conducting Peer Reviews

A peer review is an activity that must be developed as a partnership between the peer review manager and the agency. The DCA, or one of the senior archeologists in his or her office, serves as the peer review manager. The agency representative is usually the archeologist responsible for the administration and conduct of the agency's archeological program, although another agency official may serve in this role. For the purposes of the following discussion, the “agency archeologist” also is assumed to be the “agency representative.” No matter who serves in them, these roles are essential components of the peer review process.

The peer review manager and the agency archeologist work together to coordinate all aspects of the peer review. In undertaking a peer review, one of the peer review manager's goals is to create a partnership with the agency. The creation of such a partnership is the principal ingredient that has made the peer review process successful. Both parties must agree on the scope of the peer review.

Frequent and clear communication between the peer review manager and the agency archeologist is critical to the success of the peer review. Communication bolsters the commitment made by both parties to assure that the necessary actions are completed in a timely manner. For example, the peer review manager provides the agency archeologist with information about the progress of the peer review team's efforts, thereby allowing the agency archeologist to plan appropriately.

The peer review manager judges what is needed by the peer review team to make its assessment and may discuss the peer review with the SHPO or THPO and the ACHP to gather information that should be supplied to the peer review team.

Once the DCA accepts a project for peer review, the peer review manager works with the agency archeologist to undertake the following tasks, at a minimum, in conducting the peer review. Many of the tasks may be done concurrently.

  1. Define the peer review's scope, appropriate topics, and schedule.
  2. Determine the peer review's cost and secure funds.
  3. Plan the peer review team's composition and choose its members.
  4. Compile documentation and send it to the peer review team.
  5. Schedule the on-site visit.
    1. Arrange travel and lodging.
    2. Reserve meeting space.
    3. Make appointments for interviews.
    4. Prepare the agenda and itinerary.
    5. Arrange for logistical support for the peer review team.
    6. Make arrangements for office space.
    7. Secure equipment for the peer review team's use.
  6. Conduct the on-site visit.
  7. Prepare the draft report.
    1. Assemble the peer review team member's revisions to the draft report.
    2. Revise the manuscript.
    3. Obtain the peer review team's approval of final report.
    4. Produce the final report.
    5. Compile recommendations for the agency.
    6. Complete remaining administrative tasks.
  8. Provide final report to the agency official who requested the peer review.

The tasks listed above are described in the following sections of this Technical Brief. The examples cited are drawn from peer reviews conducted by the DCA.

1. Scope of Work

The reasons for selecting a project for peer review normally define the scope of the peer review. If charges of inadequacy have been made, for example, then the peer review will focus on the conduct of the archeological investigations under the agreements and documents covering the project. If the peer review is a response to problems between the agency and the contractor, then the peer review will focus on these matters.

The scope of the peer review should focus on identifying solutions to problems and not foster inappropriate or adversarial investigative roles. In some cases it will be appropriate to broaden the peer review's scope of work to focus on discerning general principles from specific case examples. For example, review of a contracting dispute may yield insights into best practices for contracting.

Appendices B and C provide as examples the scopes of work and suggested topics for the archeological peer reviews done for Fort Campbell and for the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

2. Cost and Funding

The peer review manager and agency archeologist must make arrangements to fund the various costs for the peer review and establish the budget parameters within which the peer review manager must operate. For recent peer reviews conducted by the DCA, the requesting agency has provided funds for the peer review team and all travel and logistical costs for the on-site review. Generally there also are administrative costs that the requesting agency has funded. The DCA and DCA staff salaries expended in planning, coordinating, and completing the peer review have not been charged to the requesting agency.

Costs include transportation and per diem expenses of the peer review team members. Other costs are reproduction and postage to provide project information to the peer review team; on-site equipment, materials, and work space for the peer review team; administrative support; peer review report preparation and distribution, and in some cases honoraria. Many of these costs may be covered in-kind by the agency.

3. The Peer Review Team

Ideally, members of the peer review team should be familiar with the requirements of the Archaeological Resource Protection Act (ARPA), the NHPA process, general Federal archeological and historic preservation, current professional standards, and Federal procurement and contracting regulations so that they can readily identify efficient, effective solutions to problems related to these topics.

The number of peer review team members may vary, but experience recommends a team of three. A balanced peer review team typically consists of one public archeologist from an agency other than the one responsible for the project, an expert in the archeology of the project area or region, and an expert from outside the research area. Experts may be drawn from the academic, public, or private sectors.

To identify potential peer review team members, the peer review manager compiles lists of suggested reviewers and requests the same from the agency archeologist. The peer review manager also may request independent lists from other involved parties. The peer review manager is responsible for selecting the peer review team and makes every effort to ensure that all reviewers are acceptable to all involved.

Beyond a candidate's professional credentials and availability, other elements to consider may include the following.

  1. Does the candidate have a reputation for completing work in a reasonable time?
  2. Is the candidate willing to commit the time necessary before the on-site visit to read and review documents and after the visit to review and finish the final report?
  3. Does the candidate have a previous relationship or any other consideration with the agency or the project that could be construed as a conflict of interest?
  4. Was the candidate an unsuccessful bidder for the contract?
  5. Does the candidate work well with others?

While these elements may seem straightforward, ignoring them could make completing an acceptable peer review difficult or affect its timeliness.

Once the peer review manager selects the candidates and establishes a schedule for the peer review, the peer review manager contacts the candidates to determine their willingness to participate and their availability. The peer review manager follows up on a candidate's acceptance to provide information about the project, the schedule, and other details.

4. Documentation

The agency responsible for the archeological project under review compiles and furnishes members of the peer review team with the appropriate documents that describe the peer review's scope of work, the archeological project, research questions, the archeological resources and their significance, the nature of the disagreement/dispute (if any), and background information about local archeology.

The peer review manager may request additional information from other involved parties. In some cases the agency archeologist may send material to the peer review manager, who compiles it to send to the peer review team. The agency archeologist, peer review manager, and others who provide information should compile detailed lists of materials so that all parties know what the peer review team has received.

Appendix D provides an example of the documentation provided or available to the peer review team during the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway peer review

By the time of the on-site visit, the peer review team should have a thorough knowledge of the project. The peer review team must receive all documentation at least 3 weeks before the on-site visit. Less time would not give the peer review team adequate time to become familiar with the archeological project and the issues included in the peer review's scope of work.

The package of material compiled for the orientation of the peer review team will vary from project to project. For example, material may consist of survey and evaluation reports, NHPA Section 106 documentation, scope of work or request for proposal, research design, and interim or annual progress project reports, if available. Relevant correspondence and internal documents also may be included.

(photo) Archeologists share information at site of Hohokam Village.

Figure 2. Archeologists sharing information at site of Hohokam village during the CAP peer review, 1986. (Photo courtesy Bureau of Reclamation/ Tom Lincoln)

5. Scheduling

Peer reviews may be most helpful at the midpoint of a project. Typically, field and laboratory work has proceeded to the stage where the peer review team can make a reasonable evaluation of the results. A peer review at the beginning of a project in most cases would be premature because there would be few results to assess. If a project is near completion, the recommendations of the peer review team would be difficult to implement because time and money usually are short at this stage. However, in some cases, a peer review at the end of a project or series of projects can provide an agency with valuable feedback on the design and process of future projects.

In scheduling the on-site visit, it is of course important to find a time that is acceptable to potential team members. The peer review manager should begin developing a schedule for the peer review at least 3 months in advance of the on-site visit. Within such a time frame it is usually possible to accommodate the schedules of all involved and other situations that can affect the timing of the on-site visit. College and university calendars or special events like conventions or athletic contests in the project area, for example, can affect lodging and other travel arrangements. The schedules and commitments of the individuals representing the various organizations who will be interviewed by the peer review team must be considered. The on-site visit must be scheduled so that those who will travel from outside the project area can participate. Although face-to-face interviews often are preferable, telephone or electronic interviews may suffice for short interviews.

6. On-Site Visit

The peer review manager and the agency archeologist plan the on-site visit to use everyone's time efficiently. The peer review manager, usually in consultation with the agency archeologist, develops an agenda for the peer review team's on-site visit. A detailed agenda assures that the on-site visit is carefully structured. Usually the peer review manager, agency personnel, and peer review team arrive the day before the on-site visit begins.

Appendix E provides an example of the agenda developed and used for the Phoenix Area Office, Bureau of Reclamation peer review

During the first session of the on-site visit the peer review manager, the agency archeologist, and the peer review team discuss the agenda in detail and modify it as necessary. Implementing modifications in the agenda may require complex changes in the interview schedule. It is important to determine the final agenda as early as possible. However, it also is desirable to maintain some flexibility and allow for additional follow-up of important issues or topics.

The peer review team can examine any aspects of the project related to the archeological work. The peer review team may request specific interviews in addition to the ones suggested by the peer review manager and agency archeologist; a reasonable effort should be made to accommodate these requests. Each interview focuses on a specific task or topic. Each interview session is allotted a specific amount of time. Sessions usually do not exceed two hours without a break. Maintaining strict adherence to the agenda assures that the peer review team stays focused on the task and adheres to the schedule.

The peer review manager and the agency archeologist provide the necessary administrative support to the peer review team to ensure an efficient review. Meeting facilities, telephones, transportation, and lodging and dining facilities must be available. Secretarial assistance, equipment, and supplies should be available, as needed. The purpose of making these arrangements in advance is to ensure that the peer review team can devote its energies to the peer review. In providing these kinds of administrative support, the peer review manager and agency function as aides to the peer review team.

The first part of the on-site visit is devoted to briefings by the peer review manager and agency personnel. The peer review manager describes and then emphasizes the specific scope of work of the peer review. In some cases, the orientation may be accomplished prior to the on-site visit through conference calls and email. The plan for the rest of the on-site visit will depend on the issues or topics to be reviewed, schedules of individuals, the weather, field conditions, and other variables.

During week-long peer reviews, personnel interviews and field visits normally are concluded by the end of the third day so the peer review team can review its findings and draft its report. Typically the draft report is completed by the evening of the fourth day. Exit interviews with the DCA, agency personnel, and other interested parties are conducted on the fifth day.

The peer review team normally interviews agency personnel such as the project engineer, environmental staff, and archeologists. They may also interview historic preservation officers or staff, other historic preservation specialists, the contracting officer, or contracting officer's technical representative. The peer review team may meet with the contractor or principal investigator and the principal investigator's senior staff, such as field directors, crew chiefs, data control manager, and laboratory director. The peer review team also may meet with the interdisciplinary consultants or members of the professional community, such as geologists, geomorphologists, pedologists, paleobotanists, and paleozoologists. They may also meet with ethnographers and consulting parties such as Indian tribes or their representatives. The peer review team also may interview interested members of the public and Congressional staffers. Interviews may be conducted in person, by telephone, or electronically (such as via email, instant messaging, web camera, or video conference).

The peer review team usually will visit the site or sites currently under investigation and the laboratory facilities of the contractor to get a feel for the day-to-day operation and management of the project.

(photo) Re-excavation conference with contractor.

Figure 3. Discussions at one of the archeological sites between the archeological contractor and peer review team, Central Arizona project, 1986. (Photo courtesy Bureau of Reclamation/ Dan McKeever)

Each on-site visit will vary regarding the parties interviewed because the focus of the peer review will be different in each project. It may be useful to provide the SHPO or THPO and ACHP with a chance to meet with the peer review team due to the regulatory roles of these agencies in historic preservation. Furthermore, the professional staff of the appropriate Historic Preservation Offices are especially knowledgeable about their jurisdiction's archeological resources and can provide important perspectives to the peer review team.

The scope of the peer review and the specific circumstances will determine whether or not the agency archeologist or official attends all of the interviews conducted by the peer review team during the on-site visit. In cases where problems exist among the agency and the contractor, SHPO, THPO, ACHP, or other parties, it may be prudent for the peer review team to meet both with and without the agency personnel. The absence of agency personnel may allow for open and candid discussion that otherwise would be difficult.

The on-site visit is a period of intense work by the peer review team. The peer review manager and agency personnel provide all reasonable support requested to assure that the peer review team's tasks are completed by the scheduled time and make every effort to keep the peer review team on schedule and focused on its task.

7. The Draft Report

The peer review manager and the agency archeologist prepare a proposed outline for the report, making it clear to the peer review team that the topics and proposed outline are only suggestions. The peer review team determines the content of the final report. The purpose of the proposed report outline is to provide the peer review team with guidance. The interviews provide specific and important information and views from a variety of perspectives. The peer review manager always assures the peer review team in each review that the content and recommendations of the final report are entirely the peer review team's responsibility. The peer review team is welcome to change or reorganize the outline and format. Peer Review team members may add or drop topics as they think necessary or appropriate, though departures from the model usually concern format or organization.

The importance of the peer review manager's coordination and careful attention to details in production of the final draft report cannot be overestimated. If the peer review team spends an intensive week interviewing various parties concerned with the project but does not prepare a draft report by the end of that week, it is likely that the completion of the report will be delayed considerably. It is most efficient for the peer review team to complete a draft report by the end of the on-site visit.

Appendices B and C provide examples of suggested report outlines for the Fort Campbell and Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway peer reviews.

8. The Final Report

The production of the final report of the peer review can be a rather simple, but intense task. The peer review manager edits the peer review team's draft report for grammar, style and format, but makes no changes in content. It is best to use the edit-tracking feature of a word processing program so that edits are clear to each peer review team member. The peer review manager sends a revised draft to the authors for revision, with questions as necessary. The authors return marked and revised copies to the peer review manager, who reconciles and enters the revisions. The time it takes to produce the final version depends on the quality of the draft report.

The peer review manager may include separate recommendations in the final report, which is sent to the agency, peer review team members, and other interested parties. While the peer review manager normally endorses most of the recommendations made by the peer review team, occasionally it will be determined that the recommendations do not really improve the project when compared to costs by the agency to implement them. Irrespective of whether the peer review manager supports or rejects the recommendations of the peer review team, a clear explanation should be provided.

Conclusion

Peer reviews for public archeology projects have been and will continue to be important tools for improving both research and preservation activities. They assist agencies in meeting the objectives for which public archeology projects are undertaken.

In addition, peer reviews can help improve public awareness of the value of contributions to knowledge about the nation's cultural past that are central to such projects. When conducted in this comprehensive way, peer reviews have had two important long-term results. First, the agency gains a better perspective on the impacts of sound archeological resources management and therefore can develop effective means to improve its programs. Second, the benefits of public archeology research are clarified for the academic disciplines and therefore can be incorporated appropriately into the most current theoretical and interpretive developments for explaining the archeological record.

DCA Peer Review Reports

Aiken, C. Melvin, Jerald T. Milanich, and Douglas D. Scott
1988 Carson Desert Archaeological Peer Review. Report on file, Archeology Program, National Park Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

Anderson, David G. Tristram R. Kidder, and Signa Larralde
2006 Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway Archeological Peer Review. Report on file, Archeology Program, National Park Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

Crespi, Muriel, and Hester A. Davis
1989 Libby Dam Historic Preservation: A Peer Review. Report on file, Archeology Program, National Park Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

Dean, Jeffrey, Jefferson Chapman, and Douglas W. Schwartz
1981 Report to Bureau of Reclamation on the Dolores Archaeological Project. Report on file, Archeology Program, National Park Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

Gradwohl, David M., Timothy A. Kohler, and Gary P. Smith
1994 The Central and Northern Plains Overview: A Peer Review. Report on file, Archeology Program, National Park Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

Green, Thomas, Michael Polk, and Lynne Sullivan
2005 Peer Review of Archeological Investigations at Fort Campbell, Kentucky and Tennessee. Report on file, Archeology Program, National Park Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

Hannus, Adrien, Terry Del Bene, and Jack Hofman
1990 Peer Review, Alkali Creek Project, Soil Conservation Service, Dunn County, North Dakota. Report on file, Archeology Program, National Park Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

Judge, W. James, Bruce D. Smith, George S. Smith, and Jeffrey Zippen
1995 Peer Review - Cultural Resource Program Phoenix Area Office, Bureau of Reclamation. Report on file, Archeology Program, National Park Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

Knudson, Ruthann, Frank C. Leonhardy, John S. Sigstad, and Stephen Williams
1987 Peer Review Committee Report for the Jackson Lake Archeological Project. Report on file, Archeology Program, National Park Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

Wendorf, Fred D., George J. Gumerman, and Larry Banks
1986 Peer Review Committee Report on the Central Arizona Archeological Project. Report on file, Archeology Program, National Park Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

References

Keel, Bennie C.
1993 The Peer Review of Public Archeology Projects. Technical Brief 14, Archeology Program, National Park Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.
< http://www.nps.gov/archeology/pubs/techBr/tch14A.htm >

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