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Report to DOJ & DOI
Potential for DNA Testing of the Human Remains from Columbia Park,Kennewick, Washington
Noreen Tuross, Ph.D.
Connie J. Kolman, Ph.D.

Table 2

Table 2 provides a tabulation of relative percentages of mtDNA haplogroups for various modern populations from across the world. Data from 16 few ancient prehistoric remains are also presented. The percentages are derived from either mitochondrial control region DNA sequence data or restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) data. The relative percentages are broken down by the four dominant New World haplogroups of A, B, C, and D and a fifth category of "other" for all remaining haplogroups. Samples were drawn from specific populations in North America, Central America, South America, Africa, Europe, eastern Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia, Siberia, and the Pacific islands. The analyses of these samples have been reported in 37 separate articles.

Tuross and Kolman note that the four New World haplogroups are found only in American Indian populations and in certain Asian populations considered by many researchers to be ancestral to American Indians. Further, they argue that determination of one of the four haplotypes in a skeleton such as Kennewick would strongly suggest American Indian ancestry. The dominance of haplogroup A, B, C, or D is manifested in numerous North American populations, as indicated in the following sample of modern populations drawn from the table: Athapaskan (N = 21), 81% A; Navajo (N = 48), 58% A; Yakima (N = 42), 62% B; Bella Coola (DNA sequence, N = 40), 62% A; Siouan (N = 34), 53% A; Quechan/Cocopa (N = 23), 65% B; Pima (N = 30), 50% B, 43% C; Maya (N = 27), 52% A; Eskimos (N = 462), 51% A, 40% D; Aleuts (N = 77), 65% D; Inuit (N = 30), 97% A.

Ancient remains from North America yielded the following associations: Plains (N = 5), 40% B, 40% C; Ventana Cave (N = 3), 67% B; Oneota (N = 108), 43% C; Fremont (N = 32), 75% B; Kaweskar (N = 19), 84% D; Aonikenk (N = 15), 73% D; Yamana (N = 11), 91% C; Selk'nam (N = 13), 46% C, 46% D; Maya (N = 9) 89% C; Pyramid Lake, Nevada (N = 21), 48% D; Hourglass Cave (N = 1), B.

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