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The formal and legal documentation of an incoming repository transaction, including a gift, purchase, exchange, transfer, or field collection. Also includes establishment of legal title and/or custody.

Accession file:
File that contains the documentation for each incoming repository transaction, including all legal records. Often includes the documentation of a deaccession.

Accession number:
A unique number assigned to a collection or, in some cases, an object for purposes of identification not description (Buck and Gilmore 1998; Griset and Kodack 1999).

Accession register:
System, either in manual/paper form and/or electronic form, used by repositories to keep track of all accessions.

A colorless, highly flammable liquid that is soluble in water. Commonly used as a solvent for adhesives.

"A material that has a pH of 7.0 or higher (an alkaline), since acids can weaken cellulose in paper, cloth, and board and lead to embrittlement" (Griset and Kodack 1999:155).

A process to obtain custody of an object, document, or collection that involves physical transfer.

Acryloid B72:
Acrylic resin used as a consolidant, as a barrier material or base coat to label objects, and as an adhesive.

Active stabilization:
Interventive treatment action taken to increase the stability or durability of an object.

The process of determining the monetary value of an item.

"(1) The permanently valuable non-current records of an organization, with their original order and provenance intact, maintained by the original organization. (2) The organization that created and holds the records. (3) The physical building/room in which the records are held." (NPS 1996:D60).

Archival quality:
"Materials that have been manufactured of inert materials specifically designed to extend the life of artifacts and records by protecting them from agents of deterioration" (Griset and Kodack 1999:156).

Person professionally educated, trained, and engaged in the administration and management of archival and manuscript collections.

Assessment, collections:
The process of evaluating a collection for the purpose of documenting its condition, relating it to the mission and goals of the repository, and determining courses of action regarding its care and management.

Associated records:
"Original records (or copies thereof) that are prepared, assembled and document efforts to locate, evaluate, record, study, preserve or recover a prehistoric or historic resource" (36 CFR 79.4(a)(2)).

Material used to support fragile objects, usually attached by adhesives. Backing may be made of either flexible or rigid materials, but should always be able to expand and contract in a similar manner as the object it supports. It should also be reversible.

Transfer of property to an institution under the terms of a deceased person's will.

"A substance containing both a weak acid and its conjugal base, used to restrain the acid migration of a material. Acid-free paper products are often buffered" (Buck and Gilmore 1998:360).

A listing of objects or groups of associated records with descriptive details, including provenience information, that is arranged systematically.

Cellulose nitrate film
"A flexible film base used for motion picture film and photographic negatives between about 1890 and 1955. This film base self-destructs over time going through five stages of deterioration. The film should be handled with gloves, foldered in buffered sleeves, boxed, placed in ziplock bags and removed to off-site (non-museum storage) cold storage in a freezer." (NPS 1996:D60).

"Material remains that are excavated or removed during a survey, excavation or other study of a prehistoric or historic resource, and associated records that are prepared or assembled in connection with the survey, excavation or other study" (36 CFR 79.4(a)).

Collecting plan:
Term used by repositories, it is a document, usually part of a repository's acquisition policy, that specifically details what the repository is going to collect in order to fulfill its mission, goals, and scope of collections.

Collecting strategy:
A plan that details what is going to be collected during archeological fieldwork. Can include details on artifact class/type, number, location, and sampling.

Collections management:
The management and care of collections with concern for their long term physical well being and safety. Includes issues of conservation, access and use, and inventory, as well as management of the overall composition of the collection(s) in relation to the repository's mission and goals.

Collections manager:
A trained professional who is responsible for any and all aspects of collections care. Specific responsibilities vary by institution, but can include day-to-day care of and access to collections, cataloging, and information management.

Condition report:
An accurate, descriptive report of an object's or document's state of preservation at a moment in time. Assists in planning for conservation treatment.

Measures taken to prolong the life of an object or document and its physical, historic, and scientific integrity as long as possible in its original form. May involve chemical stabilization or physical strengthening. Treatments should be fully tested, reviewed, and recorded by professional conservators.

A person trained in the theoretical and practical aspects of preventive conservation and in performing treatments to prolong the lives of objects and documents. Often specializes in a particular class of objects or materials.

A chemical used to strengthen the structural material of an object.

Legal recognition of special intellectual property rights, distinct from the right of possession, that a creator may have for their work. Copyright exists for original works in tangible media and covers the rights to reproduce, adapt, distribute, perform, or display the work.

An electrochemical process involving gradual destruction of an object, usually metals, through change in the object's material(s).

An individual, usually a representative of an object or document owner or a repository, who travels with an item to ensure its proper care and safe arrival at a venue.

A fine mesh of minute cracks on an object's surface. Crazing is most often seen on ceramic glazes and some types of glass.

Small scale, minute cracking of a material (similar to crazing). In glass, it results from the leaching out of alkalis.

Cultural resources:
Materials or remains, including historic and archaeological objects, that compose a culture's non-renewable heritage. Also includes ethnographic objects, historic and prehistoric buildings, structures, sites, and landscapes.

The process of selecting and removing objects from a group. Usually entails the rejection of items with no scientific or historical value to the group.

Cultural affiliation:
As defined under NAGPRA, cultural affiliation is "a relationship of shared group identity which can be reasonably traced historically or prehistorically between a present day Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization and an identifiable earlier group" (25 U.S.C 3001.2(3)).

Cultural patrimony (objects of):
As defined under NAGPRA, "an object having ongoing historical, traditional, or cultural importance central to the American Indian group or culture itself, rather than property owned by an individual Native American, and which, therefore, cannot be alienated, appropriated, or conveyed by any individual regardless of whether or not the individual is a member of the Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization and such object shall have been considered inalienable by such Native American group at the time the object was separated from such group. (25 U.S.C 3001.2(3)(D)).

The process of "managing and preserving a collection according to professional museum and archival practices" (36 CFR 79.4(b)).

Curation agreement:
Document/contract between two parties (one usually a repository) detailing the curation of a collection(s). It includes details on the state of the collection when given to the repository, work to be done at the repository, responsibilities to the collection for both parties, costs, ownership, and issues/details on access and use of the collection.

A trained professional who is usually responsible for the care, exhibition, research, and enhancement of repository collections. Specific duties vary between repositories.

The legal, permanent removal of an object, document, specimen, or collection from a repository. Requires full documentation of the process.

Dead storage:
Method for storing objects that are not actively used. It usually involves less expensive, off-site facilities where collections are relatively inaccessible.

Deed of Gift:
A contract that transfers ownership from one person or institution to another. Should include any conditions placed on the gift, although these are generally discouraged by the receiving repository.

The lateral separation of a surface into constituent layers.

Derivative work:
Variant or alternative version of an original piece of work, such as posters, postcards, T-shirts, or artwork using original photographs, graphic designs, maps, or the like.

Destructive analysis:
General term for any type of scientific analysis that destroys or alters the sample during the process. In archeology, destructive analysis techniques include thin-section analysis, DNA analysis, C14 dating, thermoluminescence dating, and metallography.

A change in the state of glass from a vitreous to a crystalline condition. It then loses its glassy luster and transparency.

The act of physically removing an object from a repository's collection.

Actions taken to records deemed to not be current after appraisal. Actions include transfer to a records center for temporary storage, transfer to an archival agency, donation to an eligible repository, reproduction on microfilm, and destruction.

Disposition schedule:
A policy document that directs how long a document (or type of document) is retained by an institution and whether it is permanently retained or may be discarded.

Dry cleaning:
A technique to clean and remove contaminants off of documents by gently brushing off surface grime and dirt by using "Gummi" or "Art Gum" erasers or by using archival "groomsticks" to manually remove mold and other spores.

Non-artifactual remains and organics that have cultural relevance. Includes faunal or floral remains and soil samples. (See also non-cultural artifacts or materials.)

The outward migration and precipitation of salts on the surface from within a porous material.

Environmental Assessment (EA):
A document related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) prepared by a Federal agency. Used for compliance with NEPA when an Environmental Impact Statement is not necessary, i.e., there is no significant impact.

Environmental Impact Statement (EIS):
A detailed statement prepared under compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act, which outlines the environmental impact of actions taken by a federal agency, as well as options for limiting or negating that impact.

Product name for a polyethylene foam that is produced in sheets. Used for shelf liners in storage and support of objects. Can be carved into specific shapes, which makes it useful for supporting odd-shaped objects.

Facility report:
Report prepared by a repository that outlines its facilities, environmental controls and monitoring, and collections management procedures. Lending institutions often use these reports to decide whether a borrowing institution is able to properly care for and manage loaned objects. The standard form can be obtained from the American Association of Museums.

Finding aid:
"(1) A broader term for any format of textual or electronic tool that assists researchers in locating or using archival and manuscript collections. Basic finding aids include guides (for example, repository, collection, and subject guides), descriptive inventories, accession registers, card catalogs, special lists (for example, shelf and box lists), indexes, and (for machine-readable records) software documentation. (2) The file guides, indexes, registers, and filing system aids produced by the records creator, usually referred to as "control records" or "contemporaneous finding aids." (3) The specific type of descriptive tool described [in the text above]." (NPS 1996:D61).

A method of obtaining seeds, small bones, and other organic materials from soils or sediments using water or other liquids. May be performed in the field or laboratory.

Funerary objects:
Items that, as part of the death rite or ceremony of a culture, are reasonably believed to have been placed intentionally with or near individual human remains at the time of death or later. Used in NAGPRA.

"Refers to the document's style, content, and form, including the document's purpose (advertisements, presentation album), the document's viewpoint (panoramic view), broad topical category (landscape, still life, portrait, or street scene), method of representation (abstract, figurative), circumstances of creation (amateur works, student works), or function (dance cards, cigarette cards, death certificates)" (NPS 1996:D61).

Geographic Information System (GIS):
Computer system capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information (data identified according to its location). GIS is often used in archeology for making maps that plot artifact distribution over a site or sites over a geographic area. Requires extensive data gathering and sophisticated software.

Gray literature:
Unpublished documentation that is printed in limited numbers and is rarely cataloged in libraries. For archeology, it is mainly technical reports of archeological investigations that are most often associated with cultural resources management assessment and fieldwork. Thus, it is relatively inaccessible to researchers, other archeologists, and the public.

Historic preservation:
Management and preservation of buildings, sites, structures, objects, and landscapes that have historical or cultural significance.

A hygroscopic chemical that bonds to organic materials, thereby blocking the sites in the material that normally absorb and lose water. When the relative humidity (RH) drops, water is "taken" by the object from the humectant. Common humectants are glycerol and sorbitol.

Application of small amounts of moisture in an enclosed humidification chamber to relax paper fibers so that a document can be gently unrolled or unfolded and then flattened.

Device used to measure and record relative humidity (RH) and temperature levels in one area over a continuous period. Depending on the machine, it can record levels for one day, one week, or one month.

Information Management:
The development and maintenance of integrated information systems and the optimization of information flow and access. In repositories, this most often applies to the systems (manual or computerized) that hold collections information. This may include accession, catalog, and/or inventory records.

In perpetuity:
Literally means continuing forever. Used in reference to the curation of material remains and documents by a repository for the entire length of an item's life.

In situ:
In the natural or original position/place. In archeology, it references the original burial context or provenience of an object.

Integrated Pest Management:
The selection, integration, and implementation of a variety of approaches to prevent and solve pest problems in the most efficient and ecologically sound manner. A decision-making process that helps one decide if a treatment is necessary and appropriate, where the treatment should be applied, and what strategies should be integrated for immediate and long-term results.

Intellectual rights/ Intellectual property rights:
Non-physical (intangible) rights to an object or record that exist independently from ownership of the physical item. They include copyrights, images, and rights to use.

Intervention/Interventive materials:
Materials, such as consolidants, fumigants, acids, and other chemicals, used for the treatment of objects and records, including the addition of preservatives or the removal of agents of deterioration.

An itemized listing of objects in a repository. It may also be the process of physically locating objects through several different types of inventory: complete, sectional, and spot.

Japanese paper:
Non-technical term for a type of archival quality, non-wood pulp paper that is often used in museum applications.

Lineal descendant:
Individual tracing his or her ancestry directly and without interruption through the traditional kinship system of his/her group to a known individual. Used in compliance with NAGPRA, the lineal descendant has priority claim over human remains or funerary/sacred objects of his/her direct ancestor.

Delivery of personal or institutional property by one person or institution to another in trust for a specific purpose. This is done with the understanding that when that purpose is accomplished the property is returned to the owner.

Loan fee:
A fee charged of a borrowing institution by a lending institution for a loan. It is usually a charge in addition to the actual costs (conservation, packing, shipping, etc.) of handling a loan.

Lossy compression:"...any process for compressing an image file that causes the file, once uncompressed to differ from the original appearance of the image file. Many lossy compression file formats look very similar to the uncompressed file, as the information that is discarded is often not easy to identify visually" (Vogt O'Connor 1999:49).

A group of artifacts identified by provenience, material, and/or object name. Provenience should be as specific as is recorded by the archeologist. Material may not be mixed, such as glass and ceramics. Object name may be used to separate out different types of objects of the same material from the same provenience (e.g., flakes, projectile points).

Lumens per square meter. Lux is a measure for visible light.

Machine-readable records:
Archives and records with informational content that is usually in code and is most efficiently read with the aid of a machine. Coded information is retrievable only by a machine. If not coded, the information may be read without the assistance of a machine. For example, microformat is a machine-readable record yet may be read without a machine.

Material remains:
"Artifacts, objects, specimens and other physical evidence that are excavated or removed in connection with efforts to locate, evaluate, document, study, preserve or recover a prehistoric or historic resource" (36 CFR 79.4(a)(1)).

Memorandum of Agreement (MOA):
Document prepared under Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. A MOA details an agreement between parties (such as the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation and a federal agency) on what may be done to resolve any adverse effects of an action on the cultural environment.

"Refers to documentation about data, such as descriptions of electronic files that effectively tell you the format, structure, contents, and authority of the materials. Metadata standards, such as the Dublin Core and the Encoded Archival Description Standards, are developed and being adopted or adapted." (Vogt O'Connor 1999:49).

"Microforms are photographic images that are 20 to 150 times smaller than the original" (Balough 1993:17). It is generally produced on film that has a life expectancy of 500 years, commonly called microfilm.

Mission Statement:
Also called a "statement of purpose", a document drawn up by a repository to succinctly outline its purpose, current scope and uses of its collections, and immediate goals.

"…a permanent, nonprofit organization, essentially educational and often aesthetic in purpose, which, utilizing professional staff, acquires tangible objects, interprets them, cares for them, and exhibits them to the public on a regular basis." (Malaro 1994:81).

Trade name (DuPont) for a plastic polyethylene terephthalate (polyester) sheet, commonly used for mapping field projects. Mylar is characterized by its transparency, colorlessness, high tensile strength, and chemical stability.

National Historic Landmarks Program:
Authorized under the Historic Sites Act of 1935, it coordinates, manages, and preserves historic and archeological sites that have been designated by the Secretary of the Interior to have national significance and illustrate the nation's heritage.

National Register of Historic Places:
List of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects determined to be of historic, cultural, architectural, archeological, or engineering significance at the national, state, or local level. The name also applies to the NPS staff unit that processes and manages the list and manages the extensive archives of property records in the Register.

Non-cultural artifacts or materials:
General term applied to items collected at archeological sites that are natural (not man-made), but still have cultural or archeological significance. Includes soil samples, shell, and floral remains. (See also Ecofacts)

Original order:
"The functional filing arrangement imposed on a document collection by its creator. The original order of collections can provide information not found elsewhere, such as when the creator received a communication, who reviewed a document, or what the sequence of an administrative activity was. Original order should be preserved or reconstructed in a collection as it allows for rapid arrangement, accurate contextual research, and additional insight into the record creator's methods and activities. If a collection has no order because of mismanagement or disaster, a decision to impose an order may be made only by an experienced archivist." (NPS 1996:D63).

Pest management:
See Integrated Pest Management.

pH level /pH scale:
A logarithmic measure of the acidity or alkalinity of material. The pH scale goes from 0 to 14 with each number indicating a ten-fold increase or decrease from the next number. Neutral is pH 7. Numbers below neutral indicate acidity. Numbers above neutral indicate alkalinity.

Phase I, II, III:
Terms primarily used in contract archeology or cultural resources management to note the type of archeological fieldwork being carried out. Phase I typically refers to site reconnaissance survey and mapping to find and inventory sites. Phase II refers to intensive survey, collection, and site testing. Phase III refers to full excavation or "mitigation" for data recovery. Collections are made in each phase, although Phase III usually yields the largest and most complete collections based on the collecting strategy.

Polyethylene PE):
A chemically stable, flexible, transparent or translucent plastic. May be found in the form of film, sheets, foam, and rods. It is widely used for making archival quality plastic bags and sleeves.

A chemical compound or mixture of compounds (like or unlike) formed of repeating structural units. All plastics are polymers.

Similar to polyethylene only stiffer and more heat resistant. Commonly used to make sleeves for slides or film or small containers.

An unstable polymer that should not be used for storage or in repositories. Tends to off-gas, which can create chemical reactions on or in objects.

Polyvinyl Acetate (PVA) emulsion:
A colorless, transparent polymer of vinyl acetate upon drying that is used in adhesives.

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC):
A plastic polymer. Not as chemically stable as other plastics because it may emit hydrochloric acid as it deteriorates. Its use for preservation is limited for that reason.

Processing, initial:
A series of steps undertaken on an archeological collection prior to its deposit for long-term curation, often including cleaning, labeling, packing, and cataloging.

Project design:
See Research design.

The background and history of ownership for an object or records. Generally used for works of art, historical objects, and archival records.

In archeology, it is the specific geographic or spatial location (either in two-dimensional or three-dimensional space) where an object was found.

Range of variation:
In archeology, it is the extent of differences that exists between items in an artifact class. For artifacts, variation can exist and be measured for variables such as time period, size, style, material, and technology.

"(1) All information fixed in a tangible (textual, electronic, audiovisual, or visual) form that was created by an organization as part of its daily business. (2) Two or more data fields that are grouped as a unit in machine-readable records." (NPS 1996:D:64).

"Federal records are defined as all books, papers, maps, photographs, machine readable materials, or other documentary materials, regardless of physical form or characteristics, made or received by an agency of the United States Government under Federal law or in connection with the transaction of public business and preserved or appropriate for preservation by that agency or its legitimate successor as evidence of the organization, functions, policies, decisions, procedures, operations, or other activities of the Government or because of the informational value of data in them." (36 CFR 1222.12).

Records management:
The process involved in determining the status, value, and disposition of administrative records throughout their lifetime (for example, active or inactive). Also involves scheduling records for their ultimate disposition.

Trade name for a nonwoven, spunbonded polyester product that is used in museum applications for labeling, tags, and packaging.

Preservation duplication of original archival materials through the use of long-lived copy technology such as silver halide microfilms or large format digital files and computer output microfilms (NPS 1996:D64).

An individual responsible for the development and implementation of procedures and policies affecting the acquisition, management, and disposition of collections. A registrar also usually maintains all collection documentation, including inventory and loans. Specific duties vary between institutions.

To restore to a former state or good condition. In conservation, this applies to the restoration of deteriorated objects. It can also refer to the upgrade of an entire collection.

Relative humidity (RH):
The measure of moisture in the air in relation to the saturation point of the air at its current temperature. RH is measured as a percentage of the absolute humidity divided by the saturation humidity.

Religious use:
As cited in NAGPRA, "...use in religious rituals or spiritual activities. Religious remains generally are of interest to medicine men and women, and other religious practitioners and persons from Indian tribes, Alaskan Native corporations, Native Hawaiians, and other indigenous and immigrant ethnic, social and religious groups that have aboriginal or historic ties to the lands from which the remains are recovered, and have traditionally used the remains or class of remains in religious rituals or spiritual activities." (36 CFR 79.10(c)).

To return or restore the control of an object or collection to the country of origin or rightful owner. Used to describe the return of items to lineal descendants or culturally affiliated tribes under NAGPRA.

"A facility such as a museum, archeological center, laboratory or storage facility that is managed by a university, college, museum, or other educational or scientific institution, a federal, state, or local government agency, or Indian tribe that can provide professional, systematic, and accountable curatorial services on a long-term basis." (36 CFR 79, Section 79.4(j)).

Research design:
A systematic plan for a research project. Usually includes formulating a strategy to resolve a research question(s). It also details the methods for collecting, recording, processing, and analyzing the recovered data in the field and laboratory.

Risk management:
The planning and use of available resources to minimize overall risk to collections. Involves identifying risks, identifying strategies to eliminate or manage risks, and setting priorities for risk elimination and management. In repositories, this involves measures for security, fire control, pests, and disaster planning.

Sacred objects:
Specific ceremonial objects which are needed by traditional religious leaders for the practice of traditional religions by their present-day adherents. An important component of NAGPRA for American Indians, Native Hawaiians, and Native Alaskans.

A process of selecting a representative part of a population for the purpose of determining parameters or characteristics of the whole population. The selection process may be based on a mathematical probability theory, a regularized pattern, or existing knowledge of data patterning.

Scope of Collections:
A repository planning document that details the extent of its collections, including what it may acquire in the future to fulfill its mission.

In archeology, it involves determining the extent of a site and what work may be performed on that site. In CRM terms, scoping is done under NEPA and involves determining the extent of the environmental/cultural impact of a proposed action and what can be done about that impact.

Security copy:
"Duplicate copy of original documentation that is on archival paper and is stored in a separate location from the original" (Griset and Kodack 1998:158).

"A group of documents arranged or maintained as a unit within a file system because of their shared circumstances of creation, receipt, or use. An example of a list of series would be: 1) incoming correspondence, 2) outgoing correspondence, 3) bills and check receipts, 4) photographs, and 5) legal documents." (NPS 1996:D64).

Silica gel:
A granular substance which has high moisture absorbing and emitting properties. It is often used as a moisture stabilizer in packing, storing, and exhibiting items that are sensitive to humidity.

Site report:
A document detailing the findings at an archeological site. Site reports are usually required for archeological projects conducted on federal, state, and tribal lands. They can run from simple statements on what was found to detailed data analysis and interpretation.

Soil samples:
A quantity of dirt, site matrix, or sediments collected for physical or chemical analysis.

Soluble salt:
Type of salt (including chlorides, nitrates, and sulfates) that is readily soluble in water. Can be absorbed by any porous material buried in soil that contains these salts. When evaporation occurs, salts crystallize on or near an object's surface and can lead to its destruction.

A substance capable of dissolving another substance. Solvents are often liquids and tend to be volatile. Different solvents are needed for dissolving different substances, depending on chemical composition. A common solvent is acetone.

Delaminating or breaking off into chips and pieces. Spalling is often caused in archeological materials by subflorescence.

State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO):
"The state official, designated by the governor, to carry out the functions ascribed to the SHPO under the National Historic Preservation Act. SHPOs receive and administer matching grants from NPS to support their work and pass through to others. They identify historic properties and nominate them to the National Register. They maintain inventories, do plans, and consult with others about historic preservation." (King 1998:267).

Sticky traps:
A passive insect or rodent trap that uses an adhesive to trap the pest.

Study or type collection:
A collection of archeological items that represents a certain class of objects, usually demonstrating the typical or the range of variation. It may be compiled for the purpose of comparison in order to advance scholarly research.

The process of locating archeological sites and features over a specific area. It is the first step (Phase I) in archeological reconnaissance that usually involves mapping the site, as well as any artifacts and features. Some artifacts may be collected depending on the field collecting strategy of the project.

Teflon monofilament:
Type of archival quality string that is often used to attach tags to objects because of its non-abrasive, non-damaging qualities.

Thermoplastic acrylic:
A polymer that is applied as a liquid and then hardens or sets. They are resoluble in an appropriate solvent and soften upon heating.

Thermosetting resin:
Resins that change (irreversibly) under heat from a fusible, soluble material into one that is infusible and insoluble through the formation of a covalently crosslinked, thermally stable network.

Tribal Historic Preservation Officer (THPO):
"The official of a federally recognized Indian tribe that oversees the tribe's historic preservation program, particularly where the tribe has been approved by NPS to carry out all or some of the functions of the SHPO within the external boundaries of its reservation." (King 1998:267).

Type collection:
See Study collection.

A DuPont product manufactured from spunbonded polyethylene used for tagging and labeling objects. The product comes in sheets or as precut tags.

Ultraviolet (UV) rays:
Light rays, not visible to the human eye, that can cause permanent damage through fast color degradation, structural weakening, and embrittlement of objects. UV rays are found in natural sunlight and in some artificial light sources (such as fluorescent lamps).

Bending or twisting of a material. Warping is a destructive process that is common to some archeological materials when they undergo wide fluctuations of relative humidity and temperature.

Slimy, wet surface of a material (usually glass) caused by water migrating and being held on the surface of an object by hygroscopic salts.

Uses x-rays and film to form an image of objects (and their interior composition) that are otherwise opaque in ultraviolet and visible light. Used on archeological objects as a non-destructive method for looking at the interior structure of an item, such as corroded metals, statues, and complex ceramics.


Balough, Ann, Ira Penn and Eugene F. Brown
1993     Applying Technology to Record Systems: A Media Guide. General Services Administration for Information Resources Management Services.

Bellardo, Lewis J. and Lynn Lady Bellardo, compilers
1992     A Glossay for Archivists, Manuscript Curators, and Records Managers. Chicago: Society of American Archivists.

Buck, Rebecca A. and Jean Allman Gilmore, eds.
1998     "Glossary." In The New Museum Registration Methods, pp.359-368. Washington, DC: American Association of Museums.

Evans, Frank B., Donald F. Harrison, and Edwin A. Thompson, compilers
1974     "A Basic Glossary for Archivists, Manuscript Curators, and Records Managers." The American Archivist July.

Griset, Suzanne and Marc Kodack
1999     Guidelines for the Field Collection of Archaeological Materials and Standard Operating Procedures for Curating Department of Defense Archaeological Collections. St. Louis, MO: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mandatory Center of Expertise for the Curation and Management of Archaeological Collections.

King, Thomas F.
1998     Cultural Resource Laws and Practice: An Introductory Guide. Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press.

Malaro, Marie C.
1994     Museum Governance: Mission, Ethics, Policy. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

National Park Service
1996     "Museum Archives and Manuscript Collections." Museum Handbook, Part III, Appendix D. Washington, DC: National Park Service.

Southern Methodist University Anthropology glossary

University of California at Santa Barbara Anthropology Glossary

Vogt O'Connor, Diane
1999     "An Archival Glossary for the Millenium". CRM 22(2):46-52.

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