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Interpretation for Archeologists 9. Resources

Chapter 1: Introduction

Suggested Readings

Childs, S. Terry and Eileen Corcoran
2000 Managing Archeological Collections – Technical Assistance, Archeology Program, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.
National Park Service
2000 Effective Interpretation of Archeological Resources: The Archeology-Interpretation Shared Competency Course of Study Final Draft.

Links to Additional Resources

Archeology for Interpreters: A Guide to the Resource

Cultural Resources Stewardship Career Field

Effective Interpretation of Archeological Resources: The Archeology-Interpretation Shared Competency Course of Study (Module 440)

NPS Interpretive Development Program

NPS My Learning Manager

Chapter 2: What is Interpretation?

Suggested Readings

Alderson, William T. and Shirley Paine Lowe
1976 Interpretation of Historic Sites. American Association for State and Local History, Nashville, TN.
Beck, Larry and Ted Cable
1997 Interpretation for the 21st Century: Fifteen Guiding Principles. Sagamore Publishing, Champaign, IL.
Blockley, Marion
2004 Preservation, Restoration, and Presentation of Industrial Heritage. In The Reconstructed Past: Reconstructions in the Public Interpretation of Archaeology and History, edited by John H. Jameson, Jr., pp. 177-197. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Bograd, Mark D. and Theresa A. Singleton
1997 The Interpretation of Slavery: Mount Vernon, Monticello, and Colonial Williamsburg. In Presenting Archaeology to the Public: Digging for Truths, edited by John H. Jameson, Jr., pp. 193-204. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Davis, Karen Lee
1997 Sites Without Sights: Interpreting Closed Excavations. In Presenting Archaeology to the Public: Digging for Truths, edited by John H. Jameson, Jr., pp. 84-98. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Ellick, Carol J.
2000 Against the Clock: Introducing Archaeology in Time-Limited Situations. In The Archaeology Education Handbook: Sharing the Past with Kids, pp. 183-191. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Fry, Bruce W.
1969 Restoration and Archaeology. Society for Historical Archaeology Bulletin 3.
Goddard, Terry
2002 Potsherds and Politics. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 208-218. University Press of Gainesville, FL.
Grinder, Alison L. and E. Sue McCoy
1989 The Good Guide: A Sourcebook for Interpreters Docents and Tour Guides. Ironwood Press, Scottsdale, AZ.
Ham, Sam H.
1992 Environmental Interpretation: A Practical Guide for People with Big Ideas and Small Budgets. North American Press, Golden, CO.
Heath, Barbara J.
1997 Archaeology and Interpretation at Monticello and Poplar Forest. In Presenting Archaeology to the Public: Digging for Truths, edited by John H. Jameson, Jr., pp. 177-191. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Hein, George E.
1998 Learning in the Museum (Museum Meanings). Routledge, London.
Hoffman, T. L.
1997 The Role of Public Participation: Arizona's Public Archaeology Program. In Presenting Archaeology to the Public: Digging for Truths, edited by John H. Jameson, Jr., pp. 73-83. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Jameson, Jr., John H.
1992 The Archeology Public Interpretation Initiative. Southeast Archeology Center, National Park Service.
Jameson, John H., Jr. (editor)
1997 Presenting Archaeology to the Public: Digging for Truths. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Knudsen, Douglas, Larry Beck and Ted Cable
1995 Interpretation of Cultural and Natural Resources. Venture Publishing, State College, PA.
Kohen, Richard M. and Kim E. Sikoryak
2003 Theme Guide. Intermountain Support Office, National Park Service.
Kryston, Cynthia
1996 The Interpretive Journey. Curriculum essay.
Larsen, David L.
2003 Meaningful Interpretation: How to Connect Hearts and Minds to Places, Objects, and Other Resources. Eastern National Parks and Monuments Association.
Lewis, William
1989 Interpreting for Park Visitors. Acorn Press.
Lipe, William D.
2002 Public Benefits of Archaeological Research. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 20-30. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Little, Barbara J.
1998 Considering the Context of Historical Archaeology for Museum Interpretation. In The Public Historian, Vol. 20, No. 4 pp. 111-117. Regents of the University of California and the National Council on Public History.
Mackintosh, Barry
1986 Interpretation in the National Park Service: A Historical Perspective. History Division, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.
McDavid, Carol
1997 Descendants, Decisions, and Power: The Public Interpretation of the Archaeology of the Levi Jordan Plantation. Historical Archaeology 31 (3): 114-131.
McManamon, Francis P.
2002 Heritage, History, and Archaeological Educators. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 31-45. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
National Park Service
1997 Cultural Resources Management Guide, Release No. 5. National Park Service, Washington, D.C.
National Park Service
2002 The Interpretive Process Model.
NPS Training Manager for Interpretation, Education, and Cooperating Associations (editor)
1998 Module 101: Fulfilling the NPS Mission: The Process of Interpretation. National Park Service.
Peters, Kristin S., Elizabeth A. Comer, and Roger E. Kelly
1987 Captivating the Public Through the Media While Digging the Past. Technical Series No. 1, Baltimore Center for Urban Archaeology, Baltimore, MD.
Potter, Parker B. Jr.
1997 The Archaeological Site as an Interpretive Environment. In Presenting Archaeology to the Public: Digging for Truths, edited by John H. Jameson, Jr., pp. 35-44. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Ramos, Maria and Davis Duganne
2000 Exploring Public Perceptions and Attitudes about Archaeology. Harris Interactive for the Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C.
Robinson, George
1990 Biographical Vignettes: Freeman Tilden. In National Park Service, the First 75 Years. Eastern National Park & Monument Association.
Rosenzweig, Roy and David Thelen
1998 The Presence of the Past; Popular Uses of History in American Life. Columbia University Press, New York, NY.
Rudd, Connie
1995 Achieving Excellence in Interpretation: Compelling Stories Thinkbook.
Shackel, Paul A.
2002 Broadening the Interpretations of the Past at Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 157-166. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Shull, Carol D.
2002 Irreplaceable Heritage: Archaeology and the National Register of Historic Places. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 195-201. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Smardz, Karolyn and Shelley J. Smith (editors)
2000 The Archaeology Education Handbook: Sharing the Past with Kids. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Smith, Shelley J., Jeanne M. Moe, Kelly A. Letts and Danielle M. Patterson
n.d. Intrigue of the Past: A Teacher's Activity Guide for Fourth through Seventh Grades. United States Department of the Interior and Bureau of Land Management.
Stuart, George E. and Frank P. McManamon
1998 Archeology & You. U.S. Department of the Interior, the National Geographic Society, and the Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C.
Tilden, Freeman
1957 Interpreting Our Heritage. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC.
Veverka, John
1993 Interpretive Master Planning. Falcon Publishing, Helena, AK.
White, Nancy Marie
2000 Teaching Archaeologists to Teach Archaeology. In The Archaeology Education Handbook: Sharing the Past with Kids. edited by Karolyn Smardz and Shelley J. Smith, pp. 328-339. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.

Links to Additional Resources

African American Households from Manassas National Battlefield
This web site presents possible meanings of quartz artifacts recovered from the Nash site in what is now Manassas National Battlefield Park in Virginia.

Archeology at Andersonville
This web site highlights how archeology addresses questions about Civil War prisoner of war camps, exploring how the issue of fair and ethical treatment of POWs continues to be an issue around the world today.

Component for Module 101, How Interpretation Works: The Interpretive Equation

Harpers Ferry Center

Interpretive Development Program: Professional Standards for Learning and Performance

Module 102: Demonstrating Successful Informal Visitor Contacts

Module 103: Preparing and Presenting an Effective Interpretive Talk

Module 210: Prepare and Present an Effective Conducted Activity

Module 220: Prepare and Present an Interpretive Demonstration or Other Illustrated Program

Module 230: Effective Interpretive Writing

National Association for Interpretation

Chapter 3: What Do Interpreters Do?

Suggested Readings

Reaching the Public, Common Ground, Spring 1998, vol. 3 (1).

Ellick, Carol J.
2000 Against the Clock: Introducing Archaeology in Time-Limited Situations. In The Archaeology Education Handbook: Sharing the Past with Kids, pp. 183-191, edited by Karolyn Smardz and Shelley J. Smith. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Jameson, John H. (editor)
1997 Presenting Archeology to the Public: Digging for Truths. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Ramos, Maria and Davis Duganne
2000 Exploring Public Perceptions and Attitudes about Archaeology. Harris Interactive for the Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C.
Smardz, Karolyn and Shelley J. Smith, editors
2000 The Archaeology Education Handbook: Sharing the Past with Kids. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
White, Nancy Marie
2000 Teaching Archaeologists to Teach Archaeology. In The Archaeology Education Handbook: Sharing the Past with Kids, pp. 328-339. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Young, Peter A.
2002 The Archaeologist as Storyteller, In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 239-243, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Chapter 4: Tools for Interpreters

Suggested Readings

Alderson, William T. and Shirley Paine Lowe
1976 Interpretation of Historic Sites. American Association for State and Local History, Nashville.
Allen, Mitch
2002 Reaching the Hidden Audience: Ten Rules for the Archaeological Writer. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 244-252. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Childs, Terry S.
2002 The Web of Archaeology: Its Many Values and Opportunities. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 228-238. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

The Association for Heritage Interpretation
Volumes include:

Visitor Services and Interpretation (Vol 4 No 3: November 1999)

Education (Vol 4, Special Issue: February 1999)

Sacred Places & Military History (Vol 4 Nos 1 & 2: May 1999)

Multiculturalism (Vol 1 No 1: May 1995)

Grinder, Alison L. and E. Sue McCoy
1989 The Good Guide: A Sourcebook for Interpreters Docents and Tour Guides. Ironwood Press, Scottsdale, AZ.
Ham, Sam
1992 Environmental Interpretation. North American Press, Golden, CO.
Jones, Kevin T. and Julie E. Maurer Longstreth
2002 Pursuing the ZiNj Strategy Like There’s No Tomorrow. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 187-193. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Knudsen, Douglas, Larry Beck and Ted Cable
1995 Interpretation of Cultural and Natural Resources. Venture Publishing, State College, PA.
Majewski, Janice
1987 Part of Your General Public is Disabled. Washington D.C., Smithsonian Institution.
Messenger, Phylls Mauch and Walter W. Enloe
n.d. The Archaeologist as Global Educator
Metcalf, Fay
2002 Myths, Lies, and Videotapes: Information as Antidote to Social Studies Classrooms and Pop Culture. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 167-175. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
Moe, Jeanne M.
2002 Project Archaeology: Putting the Intrigue of the Past in Public Education. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 176-186. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Veverka, John
1993 Interpretive Master Planning. Falcon Publishing, Helena, MT.

Chapter 5: Personal and Professional Responsibilities

Suggested Readings

The Future of Public Archeology, special issue of Common Ground: Archeology and Ethnography in the Public Interest, Winter 1999.

Cunningham , Richard B.
1999 Archaeology, Relics, and the Law (Carolina Academic Press Law Casebook Series). Carolina Academic Press.
Hutt, Sherry, Caroline M. Blanco and Ole Varmer
1999 Heritage Resources Law: Protecting the Archeological and Cultural Environment. John Wiley & Sons.
Ramos, Maria and Davis Duganne
2000 Exploring Public Perceptions and Attitudes about Archaeology. Harris Interactive for the Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C.
Rathje, W.L.
2002 Garbology: The Archaeology of Fresh Garbage. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 85-100. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Ryan, Jan S.
1999 Preventing Cultural Resource Destruction: Taking Action through Interpretation. United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.
Smardz, Karolyn and Shelley J. Smith, editors
1999 The Archaeology Education Handbook: Sharing the Past with Kids. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Smith, George S. and John E. Ehrenhard
2002 Protecting the Past to Benefit the Public. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 121-129. University Press of Gainesville, FL.
Whittenburg, James P.
2002 On the Power of Historical Archaeology to Change Historians’ Minds about the Past. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 74-84. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Chapter 6: Issues of Sensitivity

Suggested Readings

Dongoske, Kurt E., Mark Aldenderfer, and Karen Doehner
2000 Working Together: Native Americans & Archaeologists. Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C.
Ferguson, Leland
1992 Uncommon Ground: Archaeology and Early African America, 1650-1800. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Heath, Barbara J.
1999 Hidden Lives: The Archaeology of Slave Life at Thomas Jefferson's Poplar Forest. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville.
Kohls, L. Robert and John M. Knight
1994 Developing Intercultural Awareness: A Cross-Cultural Training Handbook. Intercultural Press, Yarmouth, ME.
Kuwanwisiwma, Leigh (Jenkins)
2002 Hopi Understanding of the Past: A Collaborative Approach. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 46-51. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Nichols, Theresa
n.d. Aztec Ruins National Monument Teacher's Guide. Hilton Publishing, Durango.
Schmidt, Peter R. and Thomas C. Patterson, editors
1995 Making Alternative Histories: The Practice of Archaeology and History in Non-Western Settings. School of American Research, Santa Fe.
Seelye, Ned H. (editor)
1996 Experiential Activities for Intercultural Learning. Intercultural Press, Yarmouth, ME.
Simons, George and Michael Crisp (editors)
1994 Working Together: Succeeding in a Multicultural Organization. Crisp Publications, Menlo Park, CA.
Singleton, Theresa and Mark Bograd
1995 The Archaeology of the African Diaspora in the Americas. Guides to the Archaeological Literature of the Immigrant Experiences in America, Number 2. Society of Historical Archaeology, Tucson.
Singleton, Theresa (editor)
1999 "I, Too, An American": Archaeological Studies of African-American Life. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville.
Singleton, Theresa (editor)
1985 The Archaeology of Slavery and Plantation Life. Academic Press, Orlando.
Swidler, Nina, Kurt Dongske and Roger Anyon, editors
1997 Native Americans and Archaeologists: Stepping Stones to Common Ground. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Thomas, David Hurst
1998 Archaeology, Third Edition. Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Fort Worth, TX.

Chapter 7: Use What You Know

Suggested Readings

Crist, Thomas A.
2002 Empowerment, Ecology, and Evidence: The Relevance of Mortuary Archaeology to the Public. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 101-119. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Multiple authors
2000 Forum, “Archeologists as Storytellers.” Historical Archaeology 34(2):1-24.
Praetzellis, Arian
2002 Neat Stuff and Good Stories: Interpreting Historical Archaeology in Two Local Communities. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 51-59. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Praetzellis, Adrian and Mary Praetzellis, eds.
1998 “Archeologists as Storytellers.” Historical Archaeology 32(1).

Links to Additional Resources

Big Dig Archaeology
Take a look for examples of exhibits and information into an online format. Exhibits are posted for several sites, and each has different stories to tell about the people who lived there and the archeology that took place.

Longfellow National Historical Site
The house has just reopened after renovations. The web site provides information on visiting and contacting the site administrators.

Public Archaeology, Jefferson Patterson Park Museum

NPS Media Inventory Database
This database reports on the content and condition of interpretive media servicewide.

Chapter 8: Archeologists and Interpreters Working Together

Suggested Readings

Christensen, Bonnie
2000 Archaeology Education Programs: A Long-Term Regional Approach. In The Archaeology Education handbook: Sharing the Past with Kids, pp. 352-376. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Frost, Norman R.
2000 Environmental Education: Perspectives for Archaeology. In The Archaeology Education Handbook: Sharing the Past with Kids, pp. 377-393. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Jameson, John H. (editor)
1997 Presenting Archeology to the Public: Digging for Truths. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Keel, Bennie C., John E. Cornelison, and David M. Brewer
1995 Regionwide Archeological Survey Plan for the Southeast Region of the National Park Service. Southeast Archeological Center, National Park Service, Tallahassee, FL.
Kwas, Mary L.
2000 On Site and Open to the Public: Education at Archaeological Parks. In The Archeology Education Handbook: Sharing the Past with Kids, pp. 340-351. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.