III

 

Idso, Sherwood B.

    1979             On the track of the devil wind. Arizona Highways, Vol. 55, no. 6 (June), pp. 40-45. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [A discussion of dust devils and their origins includes several paragraphs and a photograph concerning Ventana Cave, Hewultki (Whirlwind House), on the Papago Indian Reservation.]

    1981             The dust devil: airy denizen of the desert. Desert, Vol. 44, no. 9 (October), pp. 18-21. Palm, Desert, California, Desert Communication Corporation. [This essay includes a brief section of Papagos' beliefs concerning whirlwinds, including material from Julian Hayden that Hayden says occurred during the excavation of Ventana Cave on the Papago Indian Reservation.]

 

Ignacio, Justina

    1953a           The desert. In The new trail, revised edition, p. 2. Phoenix, Phoenix Indian School Print Shop. [This is a poem by a 17-year-old Papago student.]

    1953b           Musical instruments. In The new trail, revised edition, pp. 18-19. Phoenix, Phoenix Indian School Print Shop. [This 17-year-old Papago student writes about her tribe's gourd rattles, scraping sticks, and inverted-basket resonators. Illustrated.]

 

Ildefonsus (pseud. Nicholas Scallen)

    n.d.               San Xavier del Bac. The old Mission Church among the Papago Indians in Santa Cruz Valley, Arizona. s.l., s.n. 8 pp. [This separately printed booklet contains a printed version of the Reverend Nicholas Scallen=s very lengthy, and very bad, poem about Mission San Xavier del Bac. No history; largely twaddle.]

 

Imaoka, Keiko

    1992             Anyone interested in a seed exchange? Seedhead News, no. 39 (Winter Solstice), p. 12. Tucson, Native Seeds/SEARCH. [She mentions that her plantings of I'itoi's onions (a Tohono O'odham traditional food) have done very well in Tucson.]

    1993             Seed exchange forum. Seedhead News, no. 40 (Spring Equinox), p. 9. Tucson, Native Seeds/SEARCH. [Among the seeds she has to trade are those of tepary beans, Tohono O'odham I'itoi's onion, and O'odham Oñk I:waki goosefoot. She wants O'odham lentil and O'odham Ke:li Ba:so melon, among other seeds from other groups.]

 

Imaoka, Keiko, and Rick Florez

    1992             Garden reports. Seedhead News, no. 36 (Spring), p. 3. Tucson, Native Seeds/SEARCH. [Writing from Tucson, Arizona, the authors observe that the Tohono O'odham I'itoi's Onions they planted "grow like weeds."]

 

Indyke, Dottie

    2001             Terrol Dew Johnson. Southwest Art, Vol. 30, no. 9 (September), pp. 52-54. Houston, Texas, Art Magazine Publishers. [AThe work of basket maker Terrol Dew Johnson is discussed. Growing up on the Tohono O=odham reservation in southern Arizona, Johnson began to attend basket-making classes when he was ten. As he mastered the rudiments of his people=s coiled basket making, he moved beyond the old man-in-the-maze and turtle designs to produce his own patterns.@]

 

Ingram, Helen M., and Mary Wallace

    [1985]          How should Papago water be used? Tucson, The University of Arizona, Department of Political Science. v + 36 pp. [An excellent discussion of the effect of the Southern Arizona Water Rights Settlement Act of 1982 on Papago Indians and their various options for future use of their water entitlement under that Act.]

 

Ingram, Mrill

    2000             Desert storms. In A natural history of the Sonoran Desert, edited by Steven J. Philips and Patricia W. Comus, pp. 41-50. Tucson, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum; Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, University of California Press. [APerhaps as a reflection,@ writes Ingram, Aof their sensitivity to the vagaries of Sonoran Desert rainfall, the Tohono O=odham seem to dislike jumping to any conclusions about the weather. Linguist William Pilcher noted that the Tohono O=odham avoid any assumption that rain will fall for sure: >. . . its is my impression that (they) abhor the idea of making definite statements. I am still in doubt as to how close a rain storm must be before one may properly say t=o tju (it is going to rain on us), rather than tki= o tjucks (it looks like it may be going to rain on us.). Life-giving rain, upon which Tohono O=odham have traditionally been utterly dependent is not taken for granted, and when it falls, is considered good fortune.@

                             Ingram also observes, ATraditional Tohono O=odham farmers plant tepary beans, squash, corn, melons, and other crops biannually, in order to take advantage of the rhythm of summer and winter rains. Their fields are designed to catch water washing across the land after storms, often channeling it to areas that have been prepared for planting. A single summer or winter rain can make or break a harvest, and some years, the fields are not planted at all. The Tohono O=odham also scatter their plots among several washes, in order to maximize chances that even scattered thunderstorms will soak at least one field.@]

 

Institute of Cultural Affairs

    1979             The Pisinemo experience. Southwest Horizons, November, p. 2. Phoenix, Institute of Cultural Affairs. [Notice is given that after a year of intensive activity, Pisinemo and its neighboring Papago communities of Santa Cruz and San Simon have Abecome a demonstration community@concerning the potential of community development projects.]

    1980             The Pisinemo experience. Southwest Horizons, May, p. [3]. Phoenix, Institute of Cultural Affair. [This is about a two-year development plan put together in October, 1978 among representatives of the Institute of Cultural Affairs and the Papago communities of Pisinemo, Santa Cruz, and San Simon. Successes to date involve development of the Santa Cruz Farm, construction of a laundromat at Pisinemo, construction of an adobe brick plant, and initiation of the bi-weekly Buffalo Head Community Voice, a community newspaper.]

    [1981a]        Pisinemo community human development project. [Phoenix?], The Institute of Cultural Affairs. Map, illus. 40 pp. [These are the published results of a meeting held between Papago residents of Pisinemo on the Papago Indian Reservation and staff members of the Institute of Cultural Affairs. They outline the history of that village's community development project over the preceding two years and provide notes on hoped-for future extension. The report was written at the time of the meeting in November, 1980, by "local residents and Institute staff."]

    1981b           Pisinemo training school. Final report. s.l., Institute for Cultural Affairs. Map, illus. 12 pp. [This is the final report on one aspect of a community development project begun in the Papago community of Pisinemo in October, 1978. AThe Pisinemo Training School was a series of events held over a period of six months. Concerned with demonstrating the principles, methods and skills of locally initiated economic, social and cultural development, the school played a catalytic role in the initiation of similar development activities in other communities.@]

 

Irwin, Bernard I.D.

    1859             Sanitary report -- Fort Buchanan (Arizona). In Statistical reports of the sickness and mortality in the Army of the United States from 1855-1860 [Senate Executive Documents, no. 52, 36th Congress, lst session, pp. 207-218. Washington, Government Printing Office. [Dr. Irwin's report is dated February, 1859. He writes that "Papagoes" (whom he calls "Pueblos" throughout), "Pimos," and Maricopas are classified as tame or civilized and number some 8,000 people who cultivate the soil extensively, who live in permanent habitations, and who wage perpetual war against their "wild brethren." He further says, "The Pueblos (Papagos) are a mild and inoffensive race, industrious and capable of being made good peace-loving, law-abiding citizens. They now constitute the best laborers in the country, and are ambitious to improve their social condition. The superiority displayed by this class in the cultivation of their farms is strikingly manifest when compared with the efforts of their more civilized neighbors. Their houses are light, fragile structures, such as might be expected to be found among a rude people inhabiting a warm climate" (p. 211).]

 

Isham, Dana A.

    1974             "Conflict and compromise: the American Indian and the archaeologist." Master of Arts thesis, San Diego State university, San Diego, California. Bibl. [Included here (pp. 85-86, 89) is a brief discussion of a National Park Service archaeological effort carried out on the Papago Indian Reservation. In 1972 discussions were opened among archaeologists, the Papago Tribe, and representatives of the Gu Achi District to explain the archaeological project, one which was carried out in 1973.]

 

Itule, Bruce D.

    1993             Renewing San Xavier's angels & saints. Arizona Highways, Vol. 69, no. 12 (December), pp. 42-47. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [Color photos by Don Stevenson accompany this article about the conservation project being carried out in the interior of Mission San Xavier del Bac.]

    2003             The gold of San Xavier. Mesa, Arizona, Thunder Mountain Publishing Company. 293 pp. [This is a mystery novel involving the 1990s work of European conservators in restoring the art of Mission San Xavier del Bac, a murdered priest, and missing gold ingots, coins, and an emerald crucifix that had been found by the conservators. In other words, it=s a lost and found treasure story with murder B and Tohono O=odham fictional characters B thrown in.]

 

Iturralde, Juan Bautista

    1977             Iturralde: 1797. In Bac: where the waters gather, by John P. Schaefer, Celestine Chinn, and Kieran R. McCarty, pp. 45-47. [Tucson], privately printed. [This is a translation, with an introduction, by Kieran McCarty of a September 23, 1797 document by Father Francisco Iturralde describing the results of his visit to Mission San Xavier del Bac made on that day. He describes the church in some detail and notes that friars Juan Bautista Llorens and Bartolomé Socies are the church=s resident missionaries. He gives the population of the village as 116 people, including thirty-five married couples, six widowers and widows, and forty unmarried people of both sexes and all ages. He also notes that Father Juan Bautista Velderrain, Anow deceased,@ was the missionary in charge when construction of the church began.]

 

Ivancovich, Byron

    1960             Juan Bautista de Anza. Arizoniana, Vol. 1, no. 4 (Winter), pp. 21-24. Tucson, Arizona Pioneers' Historical Society. [Ivancovich mentions the fact that Juan Bautista de Anza, the elder, escorted Father Phelipe Seggesser to Mission San Xavier del Bac in 1732. He also mentions removal of Sobaipuris from the San Pedro River to San Xavier (sic!) and Tucson in 1762.]

 

Iverson, Peter

    1983             Native Americans. In Borderlands sourcebook, edited by Ellwyn R. Stoddard, Richard L. Nostrand, and Jonathan P. West, pp. 285-289. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press. [A list of bibliographic resources concerning Papago demography is offered in one paragraph.]

    1986             Cowboys, Indians, and the modern West. Arizona and the West, Vol. 28, no. 2 (Summer), pp. 107-124. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [There is a considerable discussion here of Papago cattle raising, including mention of the conflict between Papago Tribal Chairman Peter Blaine and Commissioner of Indian Affairs John Collier concerning the issue in the 1930s.]

    1994             When Indians became cowboys. Native peoples and cattle ranching in the American West. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press. Map, illus., notes, additional reading, index. xxi + 266 pp. [Included here is information concerning the Tohono O'odham and introduction of cattle; cattle ranching in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, in the New Deal years, in the 1950s and '60s, and in modern times; interest in rodeo; and creation of the reservation. Data are from secondary sources.]

 

Ives, Joseph C.

    1861             Report upon the Colorado River of the west. In House Executive Documents, no. 90, 36th Congress, 1st session, part 1, pp. 19-131. Washington, Government Printing Office. Mention is made in a footnote on page 45 that in September, 1857 the Pimas and Maricopas obtained assistance from the Papagos, "a warlike tribe living within the province of Sonora," to repel an invading force of Yuma and Mohave Indians. There is, in fact, little or no evidence of Papago involvement in this engagement.]

 

Ives, Ronald L.

    1935a           Geological verification of a Papago legend. Masterkey, Vol. 9, no. 5 (September), pp. 160-161. Los Angeles, Southwest Museum. [A brief account of a Papago legend which Ives believes refers to a volcanic eruption in the Pinacate Peaks of northwestern Sonora, Mexico. Ives asserts his field investigations verify the legend.]

    1935b           Recent vulcanism in northwestern Mexico. Pan-American Geologist, Vol. 63 (June), pp. 335-338. Des Moines, Iowa, Geological Publishing Company. [In discussing what he believes to be recent volcanic activity in the Pinacate Mountains of northwest Sonora, Ives mentions a Papago legend which "describes in some detail an eruption of volcanic ash from the summits of the Pinacate peaks," a legend which he believes "may well be a bone-fide account of the last major eruption" (p. 337. Also see Ives (1935a).]

    1936a           Some Papago migrations in the Sonoyta valley. Masterkey, Vol. 10, no. 5 (September), pp. 161-167. Los Angeles, Southwest Museum. [Two Papago migrations are discussed, one from an ancient "parent" area near Baboquivari Peak to the area southwest of the Pinacate peaks and the second from Pinacate Peak to the Sonoyta valley. A list of Papago camps in the Pinacate region is included on page 67. Information gleaned in large part from Sr. Alberto Celaya, field assistant to Carl Lumholtz in 1909.]

    1936b           A trinchera near Quitovaquita, Sonora. American Anthropologist, Vol. 38, no. 2 (April-June), pp. 257-259. Menasha, Wisconsin, American Anthropological Association. [This is a description, including a photograph, of a stone wall (trinchera) found one mile southeast of Quitovaquita, a Papago town on the Arizona-Sonora border.]

    1939             Anent unipeds. American Anthropologist, Vol. 41, no. 2 (April-June), pp. 336-337. Menasha, Wisconsin, American Anthropological Association. [A discussion of Indian legends concerning a one-legged creature, including mention of such a legend told by Jose Juan, a Papago living at Quitobaquito, Arizona.]

   1941a            The monster of Quitovac. Masterkey, Vol. 15, no. 5 (September), pp. 195-199. Los Angeles, Southwest Museum. [Ives recounts a legend told by Papagos concerning "a monster, much larger than a man, who hated people, and caught them and ate them." The monster was killed by Montezuma, who cut out the monster's heart and carried it away. Ives speculates about possible connections between this legend and fossilized remains of mastodons and/or the locally-found osteological remains of whales.]

    1941b           The origin of the Sonoyta townsite. American Antiquity, Vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 20-28. Menasha, Wisconsin, Society for American Archaeology. [This discussion of surface archaeology, history, Carl Lumholtz's collections of materials, and the geology of the general area of Sonoyta, Sonora, Mexico, includes mention of Papagos. The article is accompanied by a map, geological cross section of the Río Sonoyta, and two black-and-white photographs.]

    1945             Papago. International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 11, p. 119. Baltimore, Indiana University.

    1947             Two Nahuatlan terms from northwestern Sonora. International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 13, no. 2 (April), p. 119. Baltimore, Maryland, Indiana University. [From bilingual Papagos living in the Altar Valley in Sonora, Ives heard the terms tepustete, referring to limonite, an iron oxide, and tlatol, meaning a message.]

    1948             Sonoran mission languages in 1730. Masterkey, Vol. 22, no. 3 (May), pp. 93-95. Los Angeles, Southwest Museum. [Linguistic data contained in the Sonoran census of 1730 are presented. Pima is among one of six Indian languages spoken. No distinction is made by the compiler of the 1730 census between Pima and Papago languages.]

    1950a           The Sonoran "Primer Montezuma" legends. Western Folklore, Vol. 9, no. 4 (October), pp. 321-327. Berkeley, California Folklore Society. [A discussion of legends concerning "Primer Montezuma" and his various cognates as told by Pima and Papago Indians and as recorded in historical literature.]

    1950b           The Sonoyta oasis. Journal of Geography, Vol. 49, no. 1 (January), pp. 1-15. Chicago, A.J. Nystrom & Co. for the National Council of Geography Teachers. [Ives mentions that Papagos were the original inhabitants of Sonoyta, Mexico.]

    1955             Mission San Marcello del Sonoydag. Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia, Vol. 50, no. 4 (December), pp. 201-221. Philadelphia, American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia. [This is a history of a Jesuit mission founded for Papagos at the village of Sonoydag (Sonoyta), Sonora, in the mid-18th century and that was destroyed and its missionary, Enrique Ruhen, killed during the Pima Revolt of 1751.]

    1957             Enrique Ruhen, S.J. -- borderland martyr. Kiva, Vol. 23, no. 1 (October), pp. 1-10. Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. [This is a biographical sketch of Enrique Ruhen, S.J., who was assigned to the mission of Sonoyta in the Papaguería at the time of the Pima Revolt of 1751. He was killed in the uprising, and in 1907 his remains were uncovered through archaeological excavations in the ruins of the Sonoyta mission.]

    1959a           The grave of Melchior Diaz: a problem in historical sleuthing. Kiva, Vol. 25, no. 2 (December), pp. 31-40. Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. [A map of the Papaguería is on page 33.]

    1959b           Hace cincuenta años. Explorers Journal, Vol. 37, no. 3 (October), pp. 17-24. New York, The Explorers Club. [Ives commemorates the 50th anniversary of the beginnings of Norwegian explorer Carl Lumholtz's trek into the Papago country of southwest Arizona and northwest Sonora. Accompanied by a map of the region and several black-and-white photographs, the article includes mention of the "Areñero Papagos" and legends among them concerning the area.]

    1961             The quest of the blue shells. Arizoniana, Vol. 2, no. 1 (Spring), pp. 3-7. Tucson, Arizona Pioneers' Historical Society. [This article, complete with a map and illustrations, discusses the way in which Father Eusebio Kino showed there was extensive trade and travel of the common abalone shell (Haliotis linnaeus) between the Pacific Coast and the desert land of the Papaguería. In this manner he proved to his own satisfaction that California was not an island, but part of the mainland. Mention of Kino and the gathering he held at Mission San Xavier del Bac is on page 4.]

    1962             The "pestiferous winds" of the upper Gulf of California. Weatherwise, Vol. 15, no. 5 (October), pp. 196-200. Boston, American Meteorological Society. [This article includes a discussion of the winds across southwestern Papaguería. No specific mention of Papagos. A map is included.]

    1963a           The bell of San Marcelo. Kiva, Vol. 29, no. 1 (October), pp. 14-22. Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. [This is a review of legends concerning the supposed bell of Mission San Marcelo Sonoitac on the Arizona/Sonora border. Included are mention of a Papago legend about a priest at the mission who caused earthquakes by ringing the bell, for which Papagos killed him and buried him at Quitovac (p. 14); the "golden bell" story told by Tom Childs, who was married to a Papago woman (p. 15); a bell at Wellton, Arizona, thought to have been the original San Marcelo bell and obtained by a Papago Indian at Santa Margarita, south of Sells, Arizona (p. 16); and, says Ives, "The piedra que llora y canta (the stone that cries and sings) is apparently a Papago legend ... ."]

    1963b           Cosmographer to his majesty. Explorers Journal, Vol. 41, no. 1 (March ), pp. 2-16. New York, Explorers Club. [This illustrated essay is about the exploration and mapping efforts of Father Eusebio Kino, the Jesuit missionary who in 1687 opened permanent contact between the Northern O'odham (Northern Pimans) and Europeans. Included are illustrations of a maps showing the Pimería Alta, one drawn by Kino in 1701 and one printed in 1703 showing part of Baja California. A black-and-white photograph of the south-southwest elevation of Mission San Xavier del Bac is on page 7.]

    1963c           The problem of the Sonoran littoral cultures. Kiva. Vol. 28, no. 3 (February), pp. 28-32. Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. [Ives writes that the Areneño Papago ranged from Puerto Peñasco to the north end of Bahia de López-Collada (Adair Bay), spending most of their time in the lava flows around the Pinacate. They visited the seashore frequently, taking tons of shells inland (page 28). He also says that annual salt expeditions of the inland Papagos to the salinas (salt deposits) west of the Areneños settlements in the Pinacate continued until the early part of the 20th century.]

    1964             The Pinacate region, Sonora, Mexico [Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences], August 28. San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences. Map, illus., bibl. 43 pp. [Areñero or "Sand" Papagos are discussed in the section titled "Former Inhabitants" (pp. 34-35).]

    1965             Population of the Pinacate region, 1698-1706. Kiva, Vol. 31, no. 1 (October), pp. 37-45. Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. [Ives' examination of documents written by Kino and members of his party who traveled the Pinacate area on northern Sonora between 1698 and 1706 enables him to offer descriptive information on the size and location of the inhabited areas encountered by these Europeans. Inhabitants were all Piman (HiaCed O'odham) Indians, but mention is made of other Indians who visited the region as well. A detailed map is on page 38.]

    1966a           Kino's exploration of the Pinacate region. Journal of Arizona History, Vol. 7, no. 2 (Summer), pp. 59-75. Tucson, Arizona Pioneers' Historical Society. [This is a discussion of the late 17th and early 18th-century explorations of the Pinacate region of northwest Sonora by Father Eusebio Kino. There are scattered mentions here of the Areñero Papagos (HiaCed O'odham). Maps and illustrations are included.]

    1966b           Retracing the route of the Fages expedition of 1781 (part 1). Arizona and the West, Vol. 8, no. 1 (Spring), pp. 499-70. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [Pedro Fages led Spanish troops to the site of the Yuma Massacre in 1781. Forty Papagos joined the expedition at Perigua (Hickiwan) (p. 54), and the expedition passed through the Papago villages of Cumaro and Tachitoa (pp 61-62). Several Papagos visited the expedition, offering aid and provisions, and it was observed that Papago fields occupied every arable site for several miles north and south of Cerro Pirigua. The expedition also passed the Papago village of Sauceda and remained for a time at the Papago settlement of Sonoitac (p. 70).]

    1969a           Pathfinder of the Papaguería. Part one. Américas, Vol. 21, no. 9 (September), pp. 13-20. Washington, D.C., Organization of American States. [This well-illustrated article, one which includes a photo of the northeast elevation of the church of San Xavier del Bac, is about events which led up to the 1687 arrival of Father Eusebio Kino, S.J., in the Pimería Alta to work among the Northern O=odham.]

    1969b           Pathfinder of the Papaguería. Part two. Américas, Vol. 21, no. 10 (October), pp. 14-21. Washington, D.C., Organization of American States. [This is the conclusion of Ives (1969a), one that tells about Kino=s explorations throughout the Pimería Alta, about his death in 1771, about the successful efforts in 1966 to locate his remains, and about Kino=s legacy in the region. Included are photos of the south elevation of the church of San Xavier del Bac and the southwest elevation of the church at Tumacacori.]

    1971a           An archaeologically sterile area in northern Sonora. Kiva, Vol. 36, no. 3 (Spring), pp. 1-10. Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. [Writing about a region in northwest Sonora, Ives says the "... latest inhabitants, the Areneño Papagos ... left the area round 1880."]

    1971b           A map of Pimería Alta, with a place finder. In Kino and Manje. Explorers of Sonora and Arizona; their vision of the future [Sources and Studies for the History of the Americas, Vol. 10], by Ernest J. Burrus, insert. Rome, Italy and St. Louis, Missouri, Jesuit Historical Institute. [A map indicating the rivers, mountain ranges, and Indian villages of northwestern New Spain in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, including all the Northern Piman settlements named in Spanish documents of the period.]

    1989             Land of lava, ash, and sand: the Pinacate region of northwestern Mexico. Compiled by James W. Byrkit; edited by Karen J. Dahood. Tucson, Arizona Historical Society. Maps, illus., notes, index. 239 pp. [This is a gathering of sixteen of Ives' previously-published essays concerning the Pinacate region of northwest Sonora and its immediately adjacent areas. Many include discussions of Papago Indians, especially of the so-called Sand Papagos, or Areneños. Consult the index.]

 

Ives, Ronald L., translator and editor

    1939             See Sedelmayr (1939)

    1948             The Sonoran census of 1730. Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia, Vol. 59, no. 4 (December), pp. 319-339. Philadelphia, American Catholic Historical Society. [Translated here is a large portion of an anonymous 1730 narrative written by a Jesuit priest (subsequently identified as Cristóbal de Cañas; see Cañas 1977). He writes at some length about the character of the APimas,@ not specifying whether Lower Pimas or Northern Pimas. He says of them that they are Ahaughty and intractable people who distress their ministers.@ Accompanying the narrative is a table listing all the Sonoran mission settlements with active administrators in 1730, with each administrator named. Also listed for each community are the number of families, single persons, children, numbers of baptisms, number of marriages, number of registered deaths, and number of communicants as well as the language spoken in each community. The Pimería Ata settlements of Tubutama, Caborca, San Ignacio, and Dolores are included in the list. There are also a map by Ives and a second table by him providing a list of Sonoran mission names taken from maps and other sources for the years 1695, 1701, 1730, 1763, and since 1930.]

    1968             From Pitic to San Gabriel in 1782: the journey of Don Pedro Fages. Journal of Arizona History, Vol. 9, no. 4 (Winter), pp. 222-244. Tucson, Arizona Pioneers' Historical Society. [This is an annotated account of the translated diary kept by military commander Pedro Fages on a journey from "Pitic de Caborca," the modern Pitiquito, Sonora, to Mission San Gabriel in Southern California. En route, the Fages expedition passed through the Papago villages of Quitovac and Sonoita.]