EEE

 

Early, James

    2004             Presidio, mission, and pueblo. Spanish architecture and urbanism in the United States. Dallas, Southern Methodist University Press. Illus., notes, glossary, bibl., index. xii + 260 pp. [This richly illustrated and well written treatise on Spanish architecture in the United States includes detailed discussions of missions San Xavier del Bac and Tumacácori as well as of the former presidio and mission visita at Tucson. There is also a good summary history of southern Arizona=s Spanish-period past and of the involvement in it of Father Eusebio Kino and Piman Indians. The Pima Revolt of 1751 and the founding of the presidio at Tubac in 1752 are alluded to. Included among the book=s sixteen color plates are three of Mission San Xavier del Bac.]

 

Ebeling, Walter

    1986             Handbook of Indian foods and fibers of arid America. Berkeley, University of California Press. Illus., bibl. xxv + 971 pp. [The book includes information on the ways in which the Tohono O=odham and HiaCed O=odham exploited various microenvironments within the Sonoran Desert.]

 

Eccleston, Robert

    1950             Overland to California on the southwestern trail: 1849. Edited by George P. Hammond and Edward H. Howes. Berkeley, University of California Press. Illus., index. 256 pp. [He describes Mission San Xavier del Bac and the village inhabitants (pp. 199-200). However, he apparently mistook Pimans living at San Xavier for peaceful Apaches.]

 

Eckhart, George B.

    1960a           A guide to the history of the missions of Sonora, 1614-1826. Arizona and the West, Vol. 2, no. 2 (Summer), pp. 165-183. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [With a map by Donald Bufkin showing locations of the Spanish-period missions of Sonora, a pen-and-ink drawing of Father Eusebio Kino on horseback by José Cisneros, and black-and-white photos of the missions at Bacadéhuachi, Arispe, Batuc, and San Ignacio, this is an alphabetically arranged compendium, one with a very brief history of each mission. The Arizona missions are not included, although all the Sonoran churches of the Pimería Alta are listed.]

    1960b           A guide to the history of the missions of Sonora, 1614-1826. [Tucson], s.n. Map, illus., bibl. 24 pp. [This is a separately-bound (softcover) reprint of Eckhart (1960a), with the addition of photos of missions San Xavier del Bac and Tumacacori, notes on the Arizona missions, and an additional two-entry bibliography.]

    1961             A guide to the history of the missions of Sonora, 1614-1826. Tucson, George Eckhart. Map, illus., sources. 19 pp. [This is a separately-printed and bound version of Eckhart (1960b).]

 

Eckhart, George B., and James S. Griffith

    1975             Temples in the wilderness. The Spanish churches of northern Sonora: their architecture, their past and present appearance, and how to reach them [Historical Monograph, no. 3]. Tucson, Arizona Historical Society. Map, illus., glossary, sources. vii + 104 pp. [Included among the historical and architectural descriptions of northern Sonoran missions are several of the Pimería Alta, missions founded in the late 17th and early 18th centuries among the Northern Piman Indians: Tubutama, Cocóspera, Imuris, San Ignacio, Magdalena, Oquitoa, Atil, Caborca, Santa Teresa, and Pitiquito.]

 

Eden, Susanna

    1988             ANegotiation and the resolution of water allocation disputes.@ Master of Science thesis, Tucson, The University of Arizona. Bibl. 149 pp. [This thesis B intended to evaluate negotiation as a process for resolving water allocation B involves water rights of the Tohono O=odham and others living on the Ak Chin Reservation in Pinal County, Arizona.]

 

Editors of Time-Life Books

    1993             People of the desert. Alexandria, Virginia, The Time Inc. Book Company. Illus., bibl., index. 192 pp. [Papago Indians, or Tohono O'odham, are discussed briefly on pages 100-103 (saguaro fruit harvest, aboriginal dwellings and subsistence, settlement pattern, salt gathering, ceremonies), and there are photographs of a Papago basket (p. 96), saguaro fruit harvest (p. 101), rain house (p. 102), painting of a healing ceremony (p. 106), dry painting for wind sickness (p. 107), and burden baskets (109).]

 

Edmond, Susan

    1995             In profile: Michael Chiago. Native Peoples, Vol. 8, no. 4 (Summer), p. 96. Phoenix, Media Concepts Group, Inc. [With a color photo of the artist at work, this is about Tohono O=odham artist (painter) Michael Chiago. Chiago was born in the village of Kohatk on the Papago Indian Reservation, and was living there at the time this article was written. He is known for his paintings of traditional Tohono O=odham scenes: story tellers, basket makers and potters, ceremonial dancers, saguaro harvesters, rodeo riders, and farmers.]

 

Edwards, Betsy

    1964             "Diary of an internship with the Papago Indian Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs." Master's of Public Administration, The University of Arizona, Tucson. Map, bibl. 101 pp. [This diary in lieu of a thesis is written by a person who was a social worker for the Branch of Welfare on the Papago Indian Reservation from October 2 through December 7, 1962. This detailed daily diary gives a good idea of the kinds of situations that occur on the Papago Reservation requiring the assistance of a social worker.]

 

Edwards, Dikby

    1970             Follow that tumbleweed! American Way, Vol. 3, no. 2 (February), pp. 26-30. New York, American Airlines. [The author=s romp through Arizona and New Mexico in search of real estate bargains led him to notice interesting road signs, including those that pointed to way to such places as Kots Kug and Gu Vo, both on the Papago Indian Reservation.]

 

Egerton, Kearney

    1974             Somewhere out there ... Arizona's lost mines and vanished treasures. Glendale, Arizona, The Prickly pear Press. 64 pp. [Pages 19-20: A chapter called "Gold and the Black Robes" is about the so-called Los Escalante Mine supposed to have been mined by Jesuits in the mountains near Tucson, Arizona. The Jesuits were said (p. 20) to have used Papago Indian laborers. On pages 34-36, the legend of a lost mine on the Camino del Diablo in southern Arizona and the involvement of a soapmaker from Sonoyta known as "El Jabanero" and of Sand Papago Indians who were said to have "set upon" him and his companion somewhere in the Cabeza Prieta Mountains of southern Arizona. And on pages 48-49, a legend -- possibly invented by the author -- is told of a lost treasure on the eastern flanks of the Baboquivari Mountains. The story is about a Papago Indian who found a cache of nuggets and a shrine dedicated to Our Lady of Guadalupe in a cave where vampire bats lived. The Papago is said to have told a storekeeper at Arivaca, Arizona, about it.]

 

Eggan, Fred

    1983             Comparative social organization. In Handbook of North American Indians, edited by William C. Sturtevant, Vol. 10, Southwest, edited by Alfonso Ortiz, pp. 723-742. Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Institution. [Included in this overview of comparative social organization of the Indians of the Southwest is a section on the Pima and Papago and their neighbors, with most of the data coming from the works of Ruth Underhill.]

 

Eggan, Fred, and Michel Pijoan

    1943             Some problems in the study of food and nutrition. América Indígena, Vol. 3, no. 1 (enero), pp. 9-22. México, Instituto Indigenista Interamericano. [Included here is a discussion of Pijoan's 1942 nutrition field research among Papagos.]

 

Eisele, Kimi

    2000-01       Beyond the alphabet: saving the Tohono O'odham language. Report on Research, Vol. 17, no. 1 (Winter), pp. 20-23. Tucson, The University of Arizona, Office of the Vice President for Research. [This essay features Tohono O'odham linguist Ofelia Zepeda and Madeleine Mathiot's dictionary of the Tohono O'odham language being entered electronically online by doctoral student Mizuki Miyashita. Color photos of Zepeda and of the cover of her book, A Papago Grammar, are included.]

 

Eisen, Gustavus A.

    1897             En färd till Baja California och Sonora. Ur Ymer, tidskrift utgifven af Svenska sällskapet för antropologi och geografi, årg. 1897, h. 2, pp. 91-152. Stockholm Sweden, Generalstabens litografiska anstalts förlag. [A map is included with this account in Swedish of the author=s 1897 travels in Sonora and Baja California.. He visited northwest Sonora, including many communities in the former Pimería Alta.]

 

Eixarch, Thomás. See Bolton, translator and editor, 1930r

 

Elder, Jim

    1973             The white dove of the desert. TWA Ambassador, Vol. 6, no. 1 (January), front cover, pp. 6-10. St. Paul, Minnesota, Trans World Airlines, Inc. [Six color photos accompany this article about the history of Mission San Xavier del Bac.]

 

Eldredge, Zoeth S.

    1912             The beginnings of San Francisco. Two volumes. San Francisco, Zoeth S. Eldredge. [Related here (Vol. 1, p. 287) is the Papago custom of piling up sheep horns in one place. Elsewhere in Volume 1, the 18th-century Juan Bautista de Anza and Francisco Garcés expeditions through the Papaguería, including visits to San Xavier del Bac, are recounted.]

 

Eleando, Felix

    1982a           Papago: the desert people. Papago: The Desert People, Vol. 1, no. 1 (January), front cover. Topawa, Arizona, Topawa Middle School. [This drawing by a ten-year-old Papago boy shows Baboquivari Peak, a house, an ocotillo, a prickly pear cactus, and a woman harvesting saguaro fruit.]

    1982b           [Untitled.] Papago: The Desert People, Vol. 1, no. 1 (January), p. 31. Topawa, Arizona, Topawa Middle School. [This is a poem by a ten-year-old Papago boy from Sells, Arizona. The poem reads: "When the sun rise / The cool breeze blows over the soft sand. / When the sun sets, / The cold wind blows."]

 

Ellinwood, Sybil

    1964             Calabasas. Arizoniana, Vol. 5, no. 4 (Winter), pp. 27-41. Tucson, Arizona Pioneers' Historical Society. [It's noted that in the 1760s the village of Calabasas on the Santa Cruz River in southern Arizona was re-settled by Papagos after an epidemic had wiped out the native Pimans (p. 28). It's also noted that the road from Tucson to Calabasas ran through the Papago Reservation by Mission San Xavier del Bac (p. 36). An engraving of Mission San Xavier originally printed in 1878 is on page 31.]

Elliot, Samuel A., and William L. Ketcham

    1914             Report on conditions among the Papago Indians. Washington, D.C., U.S. Board of Indian Commissioners, Government Printing Office.

 

Ellis, Everett L.

    1959             To take a scalp. Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 31, no. 1 (April), pp. 140-143. Cheyenne, Wyoming State Historical Society. [The author asserts (p. 143) that among the Pima and Papago only designated priest-like men could take scalps. Pimas and Papagos regarded scalps with fear and had to purify them and pray over them to keep them harmless.]

 

Ellis, Florence H.

    1968             An interpretation of prehistoric death customs in terms of modern Southwestern parallels. Papers of the Archaeological Society of New Mexico [Collected papers in honor of Lyndon Lane Hargrave, edited by Albert H. Schroeder], no. 1, pp. 57-76. Santa Fe, Museum of New Mexico Press. [Papago beliefs concerning death and disposal of the dead are mentioned on page 59. The Papago "Prayer Stick Ceremony" (vikita) is cited as a possible Hohokam-Papago link (p. 73).]

 

Ellis, Nancy

    1992             Michael Stack: interview. Southwest Art, Vol. 22, August, pp. 56-61, Houston, Texas, Art Magazine Publishers.

 

Elm, Adelaide, and Heather S. Hatch, compilers

    1989             "Ready to serve." Elsie Prugh Herndon among the Pima and Papago: a photo essay. Journal of Arizona History, Vol. 30, no. 2 (Summer), pp. 193-208. Tucson, Arizona Historical Society. [Elsie Prugh Herndon was the wife of a Presbyterian missionary among the Papagos and Pimas . Here are many of her photographs taken in the late 19th and early 20th centuries of the Tucson Indian School and of scenes in Papago country taken by her extensively captioned by excerpts from her writings.]

 

Elmer, Carlos

    1961             San Xavier del Bac. Arizona Highways, Vol. 37, no. 3 (March), inside front cover. Phoenix, Arizona Highway Department. [This is a full-page color photo of Mission San Xavier del Bac taken from a distance and showing its southeast elevation.]

    1968             [Untitled.] Desert Magazine, Vol. 31, no. 1 (January), front cover. Palm Desert, California, Desert Magazine. [Here is a color photo by Elmer of the east elevation Mission San Xavier del Bac taken from Grotto Hill and showing in the foreground one of a pair of metal lions on the hill.]

    1975             Tucson celebrates its 200th birthday. Southwest Chevron USA, Summer, pp. 6-7. San Jose, H.M. Gousha (Chevron Travel Club). [Included here is mention of Father Eusebio Kino as founder of Mission San Xavier del Bac and the black-and-white photo of the mission by Ray Manley. Papago Indians mentioned (p. 7) as owners of flat fields surrounding the mission and as those for whom the mission is a "spiritual haven."]

 

Elson, Mark D., and William H. Doelle

    1987             Archaeological assessment of the Mission Road extension: testing at AZ BB:13:6 (ASM) [Technical Report, no. 87-6]. Tucson, Institute for American Research. Illus., refs. cited. 89 pp. [A report on archaeology carried out at the base of Tucson's "A" Mountain, one that includes a discussion of the Piman occupation of the site as well as of the San Agustín Mission visita community of Piman Indians which was once located here. A brief history is included along with a list of Jesuits and Franciscans who served at Mission San Xavier del Bac between 1701 and 1828.]

 

Elvin, Alexander

    1939             AThe application of the Wheeler-Howard Act to educational, occupational, and social programs of the Phoenix Indian High School.@ Master of Science thesis, Colorado State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Ft. Collins. Bibl. 84 pp. [Tohono O=odham students attending the Phoenix Indian High School were among those affected by provisions of the Wheeler-Howard (Indian Reorganization) Act of 1934.]

 

Embry, Carlos B.

    1956             America's concentration camps. New York, David McKay Company, Inc. Index. 242 pp. [The second chapter, pages 68-73, deals exclusively with the Papagos and their reservation. Included is information about Papago leader Thomas Segundo, family income, clothing, diet, educational statistics, population, and livestock.]

 

Emerson, Connie

    1979             In Casa Grande O'odham Tash means whoopee. Sundancer, Vol. 8, no. 2 (February), pp. 69, 71. Los Angeles, East/West Network, Inc. [Concerns the annual Indian Days (O'odham Tash) celebration held in Casa Grande, Arizona, most of whose participants are Papagos and Pimas. There is also mention of Piman chicken scratch dancing.]

 

Emery, R.M.

    1923             [A pen-and-ink drawing from Mission San Xavier.] Franciscan Herald, Vol. 11, no. 5 (May), front cover, Chicago, Friars Minor of the Sacred Heart Province. [This is a drawing of the view looking south from the lower portion of the west bell tower at Mission San Xavier del Bac.]

 

Emory, William H.

    1857             Report on the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey made under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior. In House of Representatives Executive Documents, no. 135, 34th Congress, 1st session, Vol. 1, part 1, pp. 1-100. Washington, Cornelius Wendell, Printer. [Page 95: "South of Tucson there is a small settlement at San Xavier of semi-civilized Indians, called Papagos; ... . San Xavier was once a Jesuit mission, and there remains in a very good state of preservation a large and handsome church." And on page 96: "Capt. Jose Victoriano Lucas, head chief of San Xavier Pimos, Capt. Jose Antonio, chief of San Xavier Pimos, (and seven other listed Pimo chiefs) have this day (June 19, 1855) visited my camp (near Nogales) for the purpose of ascertaining in what manner the cession of the territory, under the treaty with Mexico, will affect their rights and interests."]

    1987             Report on the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey made under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior. Introduction by William Goetzmann. Austin, Texas State Historical Association. [Emory's section of this report is on pages 1-100. This is a reprint, with an added introduction by Goetzmann, of Emory (1857).]

 

Engard, Rodney G.

    1984             Arizona cacti and succulents. Book 1. With interpretive paintings by Erni Cabat. Tucson, Cabat Studio Publications. Illus. 32 pp. [Includes a two-paragraph mention (p. 6) of the Papagos' use of saguaro "for food and other purposes" and of the saguaro wine festival.]

 

Engelhardt, Zephyrin

    1899             The Franciscans in Arizona. Harbor Springs, Holy Child Indian School. Maps, illus., index. 236 pp. [Scattered references to Papagos are found on pages 7, 29, 46, 512, 59, 79, 129, 145, 156-157, 185, 200, 203, and 220. There is a photo of Mission San Xavier del Bac opposite page 6 and references to the mission are on pages 26-29, 35, 45-47, 49-51, 61, 72, 74, 85, 91, 98, 119, 120, 123, 155-157, 184-187, 189-191, 199-201, 220, and 221.]

    1948             Diary of Father Zephyrin Engelhardt, O.F.M. (continued). Provincial Annals, Vol. 11, no. 2 (October), pp. 84-103. [Santa Barbara, California], Saint Barbara Province [of the Order of Friars Minor]. [Entries in Father Engelhardt's diary for June 23 and 27, 1921, indicate that Father Nicholas Perschl of Mission San Xavier had lent Father Engelhardt "2 volumes of registers, one from Tumacacori, the other from Guevavi," portions of which were copied by Father Engelhardt before Father Nicholas "returned to Del Bac with the two precious volumes."]

 

Engelmann, George

    1856             Description of the cactaceae. In Reports of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable route and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean ..., Vol. 4, part 5, no. 3, pp. 27-58. Washington, Beverly Tucker. [Writes Engelmann: "The fruit (of the saguaro) under the name of Pitajaya, pronounced Pit-a-hi-ah or Pit-ai-yah, is a source of great sustenance to the Mexicans and Indians of the region where it grows. Conserves and molasses, or syrup, are made from them which are now preserved during the winter season for future use. They are very pleasant to the taste in the fresh state. ... The Indian mode of collecting them is to take a long light pole, make a fork at the top by tying a short piece to it, by which they contrive to bring them within reach" (p. 36). And on page 37, he writes, "My friend, Mr. Schott, of the Mexican boundary, who has lately returned from that desolate but rather interesting region, informs me that still further south this interesting plant is replaced by another not so large -- but still a great cactus. This is probably the one collected by Mr. Thurber, described and named by Dr. Engelmann, in Silliman's Journal, Cer. Thurberi. The pitahaya of this species, according to Mr. Schott, is the principal support of the Papige Indians. It is much larger, sweeter, more juice than that of the Cer. giganteus. The color of the pulp is also of a much brighter red."]

 

Engelthaler, Ruth A.

    2003             AEva.@ Master of Fine Arts thesis (practicum), Arizona State University, Tempe. Bibl. 67 pp. [This is a one-act play for young audiences that uses Alegends of the Tohono O=odham tribe to illuminate the friendship between Eva Antonia Wilbur-Cruce and her friend Wahyanita, as mentioned in@ Wilbur-Cruce (1987a).]

 

Encinas, Jamie

    2000a           Interview with Josephine Burrell. In San Xavier. Learning history ... making history, by Alice Begay and others, p. 2. [Tucson], San Xavier District and the Tucson/Pima Arts Council. [San Xavier District resident Josephine Miguel Burrell was born in San Pedro village on June 27, 1929. In this interview with Encinas she talks about harvesting saguaro fruit, making baskets, cooking traditional foods; speaking O'odham, doing embroidery, and attending the fiesta in Magdalena de Kino, Sonora each October. She is shown in a black-and-white photograph in a saguaro harvesting camp on June 22, 2000.]

    2000b           Pegi 'oig, nt o a 'ep m-nei. In San Xavier. Learning history ... making history, by Alice Begay and others, inside back cover. [Tucson], San Xavier District and the Tucson/Pima Arts Council. [Encinas writes a paragraph expressing her positive feelings about having worked on the book, San Xavier. Learning history ... making history.]

 

Encinas, Jamie, and Shamie Encinas

    2000a           Apache artist visits project. In San Xavier. Learning history ... making history, by Alice Begay and others, pp. 24-25. [Tucson], San Xavier District and the Tucson/Pima Arts Council. [The Encinases tell about a visit paid by San Carlos Apache artist Douglas Miles on June 29, 2000 to the San Xavier community where he spoke to young people about the importance of art in the lives of Native Americans. There are two photos showing Miles and there are black-and-white reproductions of four of his drawings.]

    2000b           Mary Agnes Encinas. In San Xavier. Learning history ... making history, by Alice Begay and others, p. 4. [Tucson], San Xavier District and the Tucson/Pima Arts Council. [Mary Agnes Encinas was born in San Xavier February 18, 1932. She attended the San Xavier mission school and Safford Junior High School before working as a housekeeper. She recalls seeing movies at the back of the old school and acting in short plays. She advocates continued use of the O'odham language, making baskets, and harvesting saguaro fruit. A black-and-white photo of her with the Encinas girls, Jamie and Shamie, accompanies the essay.]

    2000c           Picking cactus fruit (ba hi daj). In San Xavier. Learning history ... making history, by Alice Begay and others, p.5. [Tucson], San Xavier District and the Tucson/Pima Arts Council. [This is about an outing to Saguaro National Park by residents of the San Xavier District of the Tohono O'odham Nation to harvest saguaro fruit. Youth attended the event with village elder Josephine Miguel Burrell on June 22, 2000.]

 

Encinas, Shamie

    2000a           Interview with Lena Ramon. In San Xavier. Learning history ... making history, by Alice Begay and others, p. 2. [Tucson], San Xavier District and the Tucson/Pima Arts Council. [Lena Ramon was born in San Xavier on October 1, 1923. She reminisces here about growing up with her grandparents when they lived at O'am doag on the San Xavier Reservation; about making cheese; making baskets; and harvesting saguaro fruit. There are two black-and-white photos of her with the essay.]

    2000b           Pegi 'oig, nt o a 'ep m-nei. In San Xavier. Learning history ... making history, by Alice Begay and others, inside back cover. [Tucson], San Xavier District and the Tucson/Pima Arts Council. [Encinas notes the positive aspects of her having worked with others to produce the book, San Xavier. Learning history ... making history.]

 

Encinas, Shamie, and Jamie Encinas

    2000             Youth team up with elderly. In San Xavier. Learning history ... making history, by Alice Begay and others, p. 1. [Tucson], San Xavier District and the Tucson/Pima Arts Council. [This is an introduction to a book created by youth living on the San Xavier District of the Tohono O'odham Nation comprised largely of interviews by them with Tohono O'odham elders living in the same community. A black-and-white photo shows eight such elders.]

 

Enis, Michael

    2000a           A glimpse into the life and times of Edward Encinas. In San Xavier. Learning history ... making history, by Alice Begay and others, pp. 10-11. [Tucson], San Xavier District and the Tucson/Pima Arts Council. [Accompanied by a black-and-white photo of Encinas, this is an interview with him. The son of Tohono O'odham parents Ramon Encinas and Theresa Gomez, he was born in 1946 and grew up in the village of Wa:k; attended the mission school, a BIA boarding school, and St. John's Indian School from which he graduated. He served in the U.S. Air Force for four years. He discusses various Tohono O'odham ceremonies in which he participated as a youth, and says that S-cuk Do'ag (Black Mountain) was a place where purification ceremonies for returning O'odham warriors took place in former times.]

    2000b           Pegi 'oig, nt o a 'ep m-nei. In San Xavier. Learning history ... making history, by Alice Begay and others, p. 30. [Tucson], San Xavier District and the Tucson/Pima Arts Council. ["Mikey" Enis tells about himself, nothing he is the fifteen-year-old son of Gene Enis and Janice Felix and that he is a sophomore at Desert View High School. He tells how working on the book, San Xavier. Learning history ... making history, has had a positive impact on his life.]

    2000c           S-cuk Do'ag. In San Xavier. Learning history ... making history, by Alice Begay and others, p. 22. [Tucson], San Xavier District and the Tucson/Pima Arts Council. [Accompanied by two black-and-white photos, this is about a climb made July 7, 2000 by San Xavier District youth workers to the top of Black Mountain in the San Xavier District of the Tohono O'odham Nation. He writes that "the mountain in a great symbol of pride and strength and as long as we still look to that sacred image, we will never be lost."]

    2000d           Traditional O'odham stories & songs. In San Xavier. Learning history ... making history, by Alice Begay and others, pp. 18-21. [Tucson], San Xavier District and the Tucson/Pima Arts Council. [Here are texts for two traditional Tohono O'odham stories told by Enis, the first called "How the Yaqui won the flute from us," and the second, "Ban i'hug-ga" (Coyote Devil's Claw), the latter telling the origin of this Sonoran Desert plant and Coyote's involvement in it. Here also are lyrics to four songs composed by Enis: 'Ali is born; 'Am 'o kek g 'olas ki:c; S-tuhu 'u'uwhig Nei; and South Takui Pick Song The stories and songs are accompanied by illustrations drawn by Daniel Franco.]

 

Enos, Susie I.

    1945             Papago legend of the sahuaro. Arizona Quarterly, Vol. 1, no. 1 (Spring), pp. 64-69. Tucson, University of Arizona. [This is a translation by a Papago Indian of the Papago legend concerning Sugu-ik Oof's, a young girl who is transformed into a saguaro cactus. It is the Papago story of the origin of the saguaro.]

    1980             Papago legend of the saguaro. Sun Tracks, Vol. 6, pp. 176-180. Tucson, Department of English, University of Arizona. [A reprint of Enos (1945), with a more modern spelling of "saguaro."]

 

Eppinga, Jane

    1995a           Father Bonaventura Oblasser, frontier priest. Desert Leaf, Vol. 9, no. 7 (July/August), p. 54. Tucson, Desert Leaf Publications, Inc. [A photograph of Father Bonaventure accompanies this outline of his career as a missionary Franciscan priest among the Tohono O'odham.]

    1995b           Helga Teiwes, mission photographer. Desert Leaf, Vol. 9, no. 7 (July/August), p. 57. Tucson, Desert Leaf Publications, Inc. [This is a brief sketch of the career of photographer Helga Teiwes who has photographed Mission San Xavier del Bac and the Tohono O'odham since 1965.]

    1995c           The White Dove of the Desert. Desert Leaf, Vol. 9, no. 7 (July/August), pp. 55-56. Tucson, Desert Leaf Publications, Inc. [This is an essay about the conservation program at Mission San Xavier del Bac which began in 1989 and which employs Tohono O'odham as conservator trainees.]

    2000             Images of America: Tucson, Arizona. Chicago, Arcadia Publishing. Maps, illus. 128 pp. [A gathering of historic photographs of Tucson and environs, one that includes pictures of Mission San Xavier del Bac as well as of Felintas, Aa member of the Tohono O=odham tribe,@ posing with a load of wood in a burden basket. There is also a photo of two Tohono O=odham women walking on a Tucson street as they carry pottery in burden baskets. There are individual pictures of Franciscan missionaries Bonaventure Oblasser and Nicholas Perschl, both of whom spent most of their working lives among the O=odham.]

    2002             Nogales. Life and times on the frontier. Charleston, South Carolina, Arcadia Publishing. Map, illus., bibl., index. 160 pp. [This book=s first chapter (pp. 7-19) concerns itself with the Spanish and Mexican-period history of the border community of Nogales, Arizona. Mission San Xavier del Bac, Guevavi, and Tumacácori are mentioned as is pioneer Jesuit missionary Eusebio Kino, who, AAbout ten miles north of the international border ... established a ranchería, which taught the Pimas the principles of ranching and farming, while at the same time caring for their souls.@ Eppinga mistakenly credits Andrew Belcher Gray with surveying Athe newly established Pima/Papago (now Tohono o=odham) reservation@ (p. 22).]

 

Epstein, Nadine

    1988             El Rio de la Santa Cruz. Arizona Highways, Vol. 64, no. 4 (April), pp. 14-21. Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation. [Included are a color photo by Randy Prentice of Mission San Xavier del Bac and a brief discussion of the history of the Santa Cruz Valley with mention of Indians at Calabasas and of Mission San Xavier.]

 

Erickson, Winston P.

    1994             Sharing the desert: the Tohono O'odham in history. Tucson and London, The University of Arizona Press. Maps, illus., bibl., index. xii + 182 pp. [A history of the Tohono O'odham written as a textbook intended for use in reservation schools. It leaves much to be desired.]

 

Erskine, M.H. See Sanderlin (1964)

 

Escalante, Fernando

    1980             Group pressure and excessive drinking among Indians. In Drinking behavior among Southwestern Indians, edited by Jack O. Waddell and Michael W. Everett, pp. 183-204. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [Escalante compares the social functions of drinking among Yaqui and Papago Indians, concluding that it has such an "overwhelming positive function for its participants" that the negative consequences are outweighed in the behavior of the drinkers.]

 

Escalante, Fernando; Mercy Martinez, and Ofelia Zepeda.

    1985             Yoem Hiohtei: Yaqui writing system. Tucson, Bilingual Education Department, Yaqui Bilingual Project [Title VII], Tucson Unified School District. 27 pp. [A biographical sketch of Dr. Zepeda, one of the coauthors, appears on pages 22-23. She is of Sonoran Papago descent, her mother having been born and raised in Quitovac, Mexico.]

 

Escalante, Roberto

    1962             Breve nota sobre los Pimas de Sonora. INAH, Boletín 7 (marzo), pp. 5-6. México, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia. [This illustrated article deals with the Pima Bajo Indians of Yecora, Sonora. Papagos living around Magdalena, Sonora, and Sells, Arizona are noted on page 5.]

 

Escalante y Arvizu, Manuel

    1994a           Manuel Escalante defends the missions. In Selections from A frontier documentary: Mexican Tucson, 1821-1856 [Working Paper Series, no. 22], compiled, translated, and edited by Kieran R. McCarty, pp. 23-24. Tucson, The University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies & Research Center. [Written January 13, 1830 to Francisco Iriarte, Governor of the State of Occidente, Escalante explains that he visited all the missions of the Pimería Alta in November and December, 1829. He notes that since the Spanish Franciscan missionaries were expelled in 1827 and mission property was turned over the civil commissioners, that mission A...property has so disintegrated in the meantime that today there is not enough left to pay one civil commissioner even for a year. The Pimas are in a state of shock. ...

                             AUnder the new system, many Pimas are leaving their traditional river villages to roam in the open desert with the Papagos. As the Pimas themselves told me: >If the fruit of our labor is no longer our own, it is better for us to leave. If the missionaries no longer administer our villages, soon there will be no villages anyway.=@

                           Escalante notes there are only four missionaries remaining in the Pimería Alta:                      Father José María Pérez Llera, headquartered in San Ignacio and responsible for Imuris, La Mesa, Terrenate, Santa Ana, San Lorenzo, the mission at Magdalena, and all the surrounding ranches; Father Rafael Díaz at Cocóspera, responsible for the Santa Cruz and Tubac presidios and the missions at Tumacácori, San Xavier del Bac, and the Tucson pueblito (San Agustín); Father Juan Maldonado, in charge of Oquitoa, Átil, Santa Teresa, Tubutama, and Saric; and Father Faustino González, Aan aged and ailing Spaniard,@ responsible for Caborca, Pitiquito, and Bísanig.]

    1994b           Manuel Escalante defends Tucson. In Selections from A frontier documentary: Mexican Tucson, 1821-1856 [Working Paper Series, no. 22], compiled, translated, and edited by Kieran R. McCarty, pp. 16-18. Tucson, The University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies & Research Center. [In this December 9, 1828 letter written from Tucson to the Governor of the State of Occidente, Escalante observes, among other things, AThe Pima settlement (San Agustín del Tucson) on the west bank of the Santa Cruz River, known as el pueblito, was there before the (Spanish) presidio. For this reason it enjoys Tucson=s principal advantage, a magnificent spring of water that gives life to its extensive agricultural lands. Only by virtue of a formal treaty with the Pimas of el pueblito do the non-Indians on the east banks have a right to one-fourth of this water for the so-called >presidio fields.=...

                             ATucson=s Pima village, el pueblito, now has few inhabitants. They still, however, have a monopoly on three-fourths of all the water. Legal steps should be taken to award at least half of Tucson=s water to the (non-Indian) settlers ... .@]

    1997a           Manuel Escalante defends the missions. In A frontier documentary. Sonora and Tucson, 1821-1848, edited by Kieran R. McCarty, pp. 19-21. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [A reprint of Escalante y Arvizu (1994a).]

    1997b           Manuel Escalante defends Tucson. In A frontier documentary. Sonora and Tucson, 1821-1848, edited by Kieran R. McCarty, pp. 12-15. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [A reprint of Escalante y Arvizu (1994b).]

 

Escandón, Patricia

    1985             La nueva administración misional y los pueblos de indios. In Historia general de Sonora, edited by Sergio Calderón Valdés, Vol. 2, De la conquista al estado libre y soberano de Sonora, edited by Sergio Ortega Noriega and Ignacio del Río, pp. 247-272. Hermosillo, Gobierno del Estado de Sonora. [About Franciscan administration of the missions of Sonora from 1768 to the end of the 18th century, this chapter contains a small amount of information concerning the Pimans of the Pimería Alta.]

 

Espinosa de los Monteros, Carlos

    1823             Esposicion que sobre las provincias de Sonora y Sinaloa. México, Imprente de Don Mariano Ontiveros. 44 pp. [There is a note on page 22 to the effect that the presidios of Santa Gertrudis del Altar, Tucson, and Buenavista maintain the respect of numerous Indian nations along the Colorado River, the Gila Pimas, and the APimas Papagos@ who occupy terrain spread out over more than a hundred leagues.]

    1957             Esposicion que sobre las provincias de Sonora y Sinaloa. Published and annotated by Antonio Nakayama. 43 pp. N.p, Culiacán, Sinaloa. [A new printing of Espinosa de los Monteros (1823).]

 

Esquivel, George, and R.P. Morfitt

    1964             Arizona Indian groups: environmental sanitation. Vol. 1. The Papago. Phoenix, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Indian Health Service.

 

Estrada, Sally

    1994             Native American Community. In Multicultural diversity talks for classroom use, in commemoration of the fortieth anniversary of the Little Chapel of All Nations and in honor of its founder, Ada Peirce McCormick, 1888-1974, compiled by Mary E. Clark, II (7 pages). Tucson, Little Chapel of All Nations, Inc. [Papago Indian Sally Estrada, who spent most of her adult life on the San Xavier Reservation, reminiscences about her childhood in Tucson. She was born January 29, 1914 in Tucson Awhere there used to be a Papago village.@ She was an only child of a single parent, a mother Awho did housework for people.@ She went to school in Tucson and, later, to the Phoenix Indian School. In 1933 she married Edward Estrada and moved to San Xavier where she has remained since. Among other topics, she talks about gathering saguaro fruit.]

 

Etter, Patricia A.

    1998             To California on the southern route, 1849. A history and annotated bibliography. Spokane, Washington, The Arthur H. Clarke Company. Map, illus., glossary, refs. cited, index. 178 pp. [This is an annotated bibliography relating to published and unpublished sources relating to accounts produced by persons who in 1849 took the southern route B one that included the Santa Cruz River of southern Arizona (then northern Sonora) B to the California gold fields. Among these are citations to works by William W. Hunter (1992) and by John R. Forsyth, the latter an unpublished manuscript in the Peoria, Illinois, public library, both of which have accounts of an October 4, 1849 scalp dance being carried out by Papagos at San Xavier del Bac.]

 

Euler, Robert C., and Volney H. Jones

    1956             Hermetic sealing as a technique of food preservation among the Indians of the American Southwest. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 100, no. 1 (February), pp 87-99. Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society. [Concerning Papagos, there is mention of their use and storage of saguaro cactus syrup (p. 90); their use of lac or resin to seal containers (p. 91); their use of large coiled baskets for storage and other methods of storage (pp. 94-95); and the fact that cactus utilization was most highly developed among Papagos (p. 97).]

 

Euler, R. Thomas

    1987a           Flaked stone assemblage. In The archaeology of the San Xavier Bridge Site (AZ BB:13:14), Tucson Basin, southern Arizona [Archaeological Series, no. 171], edited by John C. Ravesloot, part 3, pp. 227-238. Tucson, University of Arizona, Arizona State Museum, Cultural Resource Management Division. [This is an analysis of 2698 stone artifacts comprised of 230 formal tools and 2468 debitage pieces -- all excavated in a prehistoric site on the San Xavier Reservation. Formal tools include projectile points, drills, bifaces, axes, tabular knives, cores, core hammerstones, scrapers, cobble hammerstones, and retouched pieces.]

    1987b           Miscellaneous small artifacts and ground stone. In The archaeology of the San Xavier Bridge Site (AZ BB:13:14), Tucson Basin, southern Arizona [Archaeological Series, no. 171], edited by John C. Ravesloot, part 3, pp. 239-250. Tucson, University of Arizona, Arizona State Museum, Cultural Resource Management Division. [Analyzed here are modeled clay spindle whorls; worked sherds; ceramic adornments; sherd disks; ceramic figurines; miscellaneous clay objects; stone spindle whorls; stone beads; pigment stones; stone pendants; miscellaneous rocks and minerals; ground, polished, and abrading tools; manos, handstones, and metates; polishing stones; gyratory crusher; mortars; reamers; arrow shaft straightener; stone bowl and pestle; and platform preparation stones excavated from a prehistoric site on the San Xavier Reservation.]

    1987c           San Xavier project (AZ BB:13:14) lithic coding format. In The archaeology of the San Xavier Bridge Site (AZ BB:13:14), Tucson Basin, southern Arizona [Archaeological Series, no. 171], edited by John C. Ravesloot, part 3, Appendix M, p. 481. Tucson, University of Arizona, Arizona State Museum, Cultural Resource Management Division. [This is a the coding format used by Euler in his analysis of stone materials recovered from a prehistoric site on the San Xavier Reservation.]

 

Evans, Doris

    1980             Saguaro. Globe, Arizona, Southwest Parks and Monuments Association. [A book lavishly illustrated with color photographs concerning the saguaro cactus has three pictures and a brief text concerning the Papago saguaro fruit harvest.]

    1993             Saguaro National Monument. Tucson, Southwest Parks and Monuments Association. Map, illus. 15 pp. [This booklet describing southern Arizona's Saguaro National Monument includes one paragraph discussing the Tohono O'odham's harvesting of saguaro fruit.]

 

Evans, G. Edward; Karin Abbey, and Dennis Reed, compilers

    1977             Bibliography of language arts materials for native North Americans: bilingual, English as a second language and Native language materials 1965-1974. Los Angeles, American Indian Studies Center, University of California at Los Angeles. Index. 283 pp. [There are citations here to seven Papago bilingual and monolingual sources.]

 

Evans, George W.B.

    1945             Mexican gold trail; the journal of a Forty-Niner. Edited by Glenn S. Dumke. San Marino, California, The Huntington Library. Maps, illus., index. 340 pp. [Evans' journal entry for August 19, 1849, is on pages 150-151: "After moving forward two miles we entered the Puebla Los Indies (San Xavier del Bac), or Town of the Indians. They have a church here partly of adobe and part burned brick, well finished and neatly constructed. This building faces the plaza, around which are buildings of an ordinary character. Outside of these are the Indian habitations, mere huts and easily represented on paper. These are first woven into a convenient form with young willow twigs, and this frame is then covered with long grass which here grows abundantly. The most of these people were extremely poor, their dress consisting of nothing but the breechcloth and occasionally a hat. Herding was their chief occupation. They were very civil and polite, and extremely thankful for the least favor granted. Nine miles more brought us to Tausson, which we found but little better than the Indian town."]

 

Evers, Larry

    1983             Mary Austin and the spirit of the land. In The land of journeys' ending, by Mary Austin, pp. ix-xxv. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [Evers tells a little about Mary Austin's 1923 trip into the Papago country with D.T. McDougal, Ina Sizer Cassidy, and artist Gerald Cassidy.]

    1988             American Indians verbal art and literature: a 1987 NEH summer seminar for college teachers. In An inventory of Native American programs at the University of Arizona for fiscal years 1985-1987, compiled by Gordon V. Krutz, p. 32. Tucson, University of Arizona, Office of Indian Programs. [Among those who addressed participants in the summer seminar were Tohono O=odham writers Ofelia Zepeda and Danny Lopez.]

     1995            Sun tracks: a brief history and check list. In Home places: contemporary Native American writing from Sun Tracks, edited by Larry Evers and Ofelia Zepeda, pp. 73-87. Tucson and London, The University of Arizona Press. [This brief history of Sun Tracks, an American Indian literary journal, mentions Tohono O'odham involvement in its history and includes listings of poems and essays by Tohono O'odham that have appeared in various issues of the journal.]

 

Evers, Larry, and Felipe S. Molina

    1987             Yaqui deer songs / maso bwikam. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [Various comparisons are drawn between Yaqui songs and beliefs regarding the universe about which songs are sung and those of the Papago. Yaquis call Papagos huya yoemem, the "wilderness people." See pages 18-19 and 139-140.]

 

Evers, Larry, and Ofelia Zepeda

    1995             Introduction. In Home places: contemporary Native American writing from Sun Tracks, edited by Larry Evers and Ofelia Zepeda, pp. vii-xi. Tucson and London, The University of Arizona Press. [This introduction to a collection of writing by Native American authors makes mention of the Tohono O'odham and Danny Lopez.]

 

Evers, Larry, and Ofelia Zepeda, editors

    1995             Home places: contemporary Native American writing from Sun Tracks. Tucson and London, The University of Arizona Press. [Included in the list of contributors (pp. 89-94) to this volume are the names of Tohono O'odham Danny Lopez and Ofelia Zepeda. Very brief biographical sketches are given for both of them.]

 

Ewing, Russell C.

    1931             "History of Pimería Alta, 1687-1767." Master's thesis, University of California, Berkeley. [The history covers the Jesuit missionary period among the Northern Piman Indians.]

    1934             "The Pima uprising, 1751-1752: a study in Spain's Indian policy." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. [The title is the abstract.]

    1938             The Pima outbreak in November, 1751. New Mexico Historical Review, Vol. 8, no. 4 (October), pp. 337-346. Albuquerque, The Historical Society of New Mexico and the University of New Mexico. [This overview of the Pima Revolt against Spaniards that took place in 1751 includes some details concerning the revolt and Mission San Xavier del Bac (pages 345-346).]

    1941             Investigations into the causes of the Pima uprising of 1751. Mid-America, Vol. 23, no. 2 (April), pp. 138-151. Chicago, Loyola University. [Among other things, Ewing points out that the plot for the Pima revolt was carried from Saric, Sonora to the Papagos in the east (page 139). The revolt as it unfolded at San Xavier del Bac is mentioned on page 141.]

    1945             The Pima uprising of 1751: a study of Spanish-Indian relations on the frontier of New Spain. In Greater America: essays in honor of Herbert Eugene Bolton, edited by Adele Ogden, pp. 259-280. Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press. [This is an overview of the rebellion carried out by Northern Pimans in 1751 against the Spaniards, with details on events are particular mission locales -- Mission San Xavier del Bac included (pp. 264-265).]

    1972             The Spanish past. In Arizona, its people and its resources, revised 2nd edition by members of the faculty of the University of Arizona, pp. 28-50. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [Ewing notes that in 1540 Melchior Díaz marched west through the land of the Papagos and Yumas (p. 32). He also observes that Papagos had cultural traits distinguishing them from their linguistic relatives the Sobas, Pimas, and Sobaipuris (p. 42). Several pages are devoted to the missions of the Pimería Alta and Father Eusebio Kino=s role in their founding. There are photos of the missions at Tumacácori, Cocóspera, Caborca, and Magdalena accompanying his article.]

 

Ezcurra, Exequiel; Richard S. Felger, Ann D. Russell, and Miguel Equihua

    1988             Freshwater islands in a desert sand sea: the hydrology, flora, and phytogeography of the Gran Desierto oases of northwestern Mexico. Desert Plants, Vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 35-44, 55-63. Superior, The University of Arizona. [There is scattered mention throughout of the Tohono O'odham who used the pozos (waterholes) during their sacred pilgrimages to the Gulf of California to get salt. So is there mention of various uses made by these people of some of the plants that grow in the region, such as use of the stems of Sarcobatus vermiculatus for arrow shafts and the ashes as medicine; the use of carrizo for various purposes; etc. etc.]

 

Ezell, Greta

    1976             Bibliografía temática para la cuenca del Río Sonoita. In Sonora: antropología del desierto [Colección Científica Diversa, 27], coordinated by Beatriz Braniff C. and Richard S. Felger, pp. 328-330. México, SEP, Instituto Nacional Antropología e Historia, Centro Regional del Noroeste. [This is a list of sixty-two bibliographic sources relating to the region of the Río Sonoita, including an indication whether the references relate primarily to history, archaeology, or ethnology. The date or period of time covered by the reference is also given. Some of these citations relate to Papagos living in Sonoita and vicinity.]

 

Ezell, Paul H.

    1937             Shell work of the prehistoric Southwest. Kiva, Vol. 3, no. 3 (December), pp. 9-12. Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. [Mention is made of vinegar prepared by Papagos from the fruit of the saguaro cactus (p. 12). Ezell believes such vinegar may have been used prehistorically to etch marine shells.]

    1954             An archaeological survey of northwestern Papagueria. Kiva, Vol. 19, nos. 2-4 (Spring), pp. 1-26. Tucson, Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. [Archaeological materials were gathered from the surfaces of more than a hundred prehistoric sites in the northwestern Papagueria. Illustrated with numerous photos of sites and artifacts.]

    1955a           The archaeological delineation of a cultural boundary in Papagueria. American Antiquity, Vol. 20, no. 4, part 1 (April), pp. 367-374. Salt Lake City, Society for American Archaeology. [Using ceramic evidence, Ezell delineates a cultural boundary in the western Papaguería. Historical data concerning the Papago in general and the Sand Papago in particular are on pages 370-372.]

    1955b           "The Hispanic acculturation of the Gila River Pimas." Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Arizona, Tucson. Maps, illus., bibl. 436 pp. [This is a study of culture change among the Gila River Pimas of central Arizona as a result of their contact with Hispanic culture prior to the middle of the 19th century. Papago Indians are referred to throughout.]

    1956             Fray Diego Bringas, a forgotten cartographer of Sonora. Imago Mundi, Vol. 13, pp. 151-158. The Hague, Mouton & Co. [Presented here are three eighteenth-century maps of the Pimería Alta, two of them by Fray Diego Bringas and dating from ca. 1796. Bringas was a Franciscan who inspected the missions of the Northern Pimans in 1795-96 (see Bringas 1977). Ezell also offers a table listing the Pimería Alta missions and their populations for the year 1774.]

    1958             An early geographer of the Southwest: Father Diego Bringas. El Museo, Vol. 2, no. 2 (May), pp. 18-30. San Diego, San Diego Museum Association. [Drawing principally on information gleaned from one of the maps drawn by Fray Diego Bringas indicating the route of his travels in the Pimería Alta in the late 18th century, Ezell writes about various locations indicated by Bringas on his map.]

    1961             The Hispanic acculturation of the Gila River Pimas. American Anthropologist, Vol. 63, no. 5, part 2 [Memoir, 90]. Menasha, Wisconsin, American Anthropological Association. Maps, illus., refs. cited, index. 171 pp. [This is the published version of Ezell (1955b). The index (p. 167) lists forty-two separate citations to Papago Indians.]

      1963           The Maricopas: an identification from documentary sources. Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, no. 6. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. [On pages 5 and 7 there is a discussion of use of the terms "Pima," "Papago," and "Sand Papago" in the literature in connection with Indians living along the lower Gila River. On page 12, Papagos at "Cubbos" (Gu Vo?) told of the aversion toward the Yumas held by Papagos of the north, the Gileños, and the Opas. And on page 14, it is said that the word aw:pup is that used by Papagos to refer to the modern Maricopas.]

    1983             History of the Pima. In Handbook of North American Indians, edited by William C. Sturtevant, Vol. 10, Southwest, edited by Alfonso Ortiz, pp. 149-160. Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Institution. [Included here (p. 149) is a brief discussion of the concept of "Papago" as distinct from that of "Pima."]

    1991       See Celaya (1991)

 

Ezell, Paul, and Greta Ezell

    1987      Sedelmayr=s journey to the Colorado, 1744. In Brand Book Number Eight, edited by Clifford M. Graves and others, pp. 135-151. San Diego, San Diego Corral of the Westerners. [With a lengthy introduction and notes by the Ezells, this is a translation into English of a letter written by Jesuit missionary Father Jacobo Sedelmayr in 1744 about a journey taken by him from his mission station at Tubutama in the Pimería Alta north across the Papaguería, down the Gila, and north to the vicinity of the junction of the Colorado and Bill Williams rivers before returning south to the western Papaguería through Sonoita and back to Tubutama. At one juncture Sedelmayr writes of Aa lying Papago who travels all this (country) from Judac Son (Shodakshon) and recounting falsehoods.@]