# August Anguish at Andersonville (Grades 4-6)

The graves of August 1864
NPS/C. Barr

### Overall Rating

Subject:
Algebra, Civil War, Mathematics, Military and Wartime History, Writing
Duration:
1 Class Period (45-60 minutes)
Group Size:
Up to 36
Setting:
classroom
National/State Standards:

### Overview

In August of 1864, over 32,000 American soldiers were held captive at Andersonville. Mismanagement and overcrowding lead to a high rate of suffering and death among the prisoners. Understanding the scale of suffering is a challenge; this activity uses math activities and word problems to explore the darkest moment of the prisons history.

### Objective(s)

At the end of the lesson, students will be able to do one or more of the following:

1. Students will be able to determine the area of a rectangle.
2. Students will understand that a/b = a ÷ b.
3. Students will be able to convert fractions to percentages.

### Background

After the breakdown of the prison exchange system in mid-1863, both Union and Confederate forces were forced to hold prisoners for an extended period of time. The Confederacy first held Union prisoners in the capital city of Richmond, VA, but this placed a tremendous strain on the city's resources. So in early 1864 the Confederacy built a new prison in rural Georgia – Camp Sumter, which quickly became known as Andersonville.

By the summer of 1864 Andersonville was incredibly overcrowded. Approximately 33,000 prisoners were held in a space intended for 10,000 and diseases related to sanitation and nutrition were rampant. By the time the prison ceased operation 45,000 men passed through the prison gates, and 13,000 of them died, making Andersonville the deadliest ground in American history.

It can sometimes be difficult for students to grasp to scale of suffering at Andersonville. This activity provides an opportunity for students to apply math skills and get a better sense of the overcrowding and death that occurred in August of 1864, when the prison was at its maximum population.

### Materials

Photocopies of materials that may be needed are included in this lesson and will be provided by the teacher.

### Procedure

Caluculate how many prisoners died in the month of August?

Students can use the chart "Daily Returns, August 1864" and add the number of deaths for each day.

What was the total square footage of Andersonville Prison before it was expanded? And after? 1 acre = 43,560 square feet. Before the expansion – 16 acres, after the expansion – 26.5 acres. To calculate students will multiple the number of square feet per acre x the number of acres.

What fraction of the total prison population tried to escape during August? Express your answer as both a fraction and percent. To calculate attempted escapes, use the chart labeled "Consolidated Returns for August 1864"

A. Divide the number of escapes by the number of total prisoners on hand in August.

B. Multiply the number found in step "a" by 100 to get the percentage.

What fraction of escape attempts was successful? What percent? Students can use the chart labeled "Daily Returns, August 1864" A successful escape is defined as a prisoner that escapes but avoids recapture.

A. To calculate the successful escapes, add the number of recaptured prisoners, and subtract these from the total number of escapes (from step 3).

B. Divide the number of successful escapes by the number of attempted escapes.

C. Multiply the number found in step "b" by 100 to get the percentage of escapes that were successful.

### Assessment

(1)       How many prisoners died in the month of August? 2,993 died in the month of August

(2)       What was the total square footage of the prison before it was expanded? And after?

There are 43,560 square feet per 1 acre.

16 acres x 43,560 sq. ft. = 696,960 sq. ft. before the expansion

26.5 acres x 43,560 sq. ft. = 1,154,340 sq. ft. after the expansion

(3)       What fraction of the total prison population tried to escape during August? What percent?

30 total prisoners tried to escape in August

34,760 is the total number of prisoners that lived at the prison during August.

30/34,760 is the fraction of the prison population that tried to escape. This fraction reduces to approximately 1/1,158.

34/34,760 expressed as a percentage is 0.0863% (less than 0.1% of all prisoners escaped)

(4)       What fraction of escape attempts was successful? What percent?

30 escape attempts were made, and 6 were recaptured, meaning that 24/30 escapes of were successful. 26/30 is the fraction of escape attempts that were successful (13/15 if reduced). 26/30 expressed as a percentage is 86.66% escape attempts were successful.

### Park Connections

The prisoners buried in sections E and F in Andersonville National Cemetery died over a 32 day period from the end of July to the end of August 1864. These sections are a powerful visual representation of the scale of suffering in Andersonville when the prison was at its height.

### Extensions

Students should imagine themselves as prisoners at Andersonville. Their job is to write a letter to Abraham Lincoln describing the conditions they are forced to live in and giving a detailed report of prisoner numbers (in the hospital, deaths per day, etc.) and living space (dimensions of the prison and square feet per prisoner) using the Consolidated Returns of the Month of August.

### Vocabulary

Sum, Square Foot, Fraction, Numerator, Denominator, Percent